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any form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, and services usually paid for by an identified sponsor
functions of advertising
1.serves a marketing function by helping companies that provide products or services sell their products 2. its educational 3. plays an economic role (enables new competitors to enter the business arena) 4. it reaches a mass audience, thus reducing the cost of personal selling 5. advertising performs a definite social function, helps increase productivity and raises standard of living
types of advertising
1. consumer 2. business to business
consumer advertising
targeted at the people who buy goods and services for personal use
business to business advertising
aimed at people who buy products for business use
target audience
specific segment of the population for whom the product or service has a definite appeal
ad purposes
1. primary demand ad 2. selective demand ad 3. direct action ad 4. indirect action ad
primary demand ad
has as its purpose the promotion of a particular product category rather than a specific brand (encourage milk drinking)
selective demand ad
used by an individual company to sell its particular brand
direct action ad
usually contains a toll free number, coupon, email address, or some similar device to enable the advertiser to see results quickly
indirect action ad
works over the long run to build a company's image and increase consumer awareness
advertising agency
an organization that specializes in providing advertising services to its clients
Volney Palmer
bought large amounts of space in various newspapers at discount and then resold the space at higher rates to advertisers space broker
N W Ayer and Son
offered to plan, create, and execute complete advertising campaigns for its customers. changed palmer's situation
viral advertising
technique by which companies try to create messages that are so compelling, interesting, funny, or suggestive that consumers willingly and sponatenously share them with others, usually via email, social networking sites, or cell phones. word spreads quickly much like a virus
national advertisers
sell their product or service to customers all across the country. the emphasis in national advertising is on the product or service and not so much on the place where the product or service is sold Coke doesn't mind where it sells its product from a store or vending machine
retail advertisers
companies such as local resaurants, car dealerships, tv repair shops, and other merchants and service organizations that have customers in only one city or trading area want to attract customers to a specific store or place of business
independent business organization composed of creative people and businesspeople who develop, prepare, and place advertising for sellers seeking to find customers for their goods and services.
full service agency
handles all phases of the advertising process for its clients: plans, creates, produces, and places ads,
media buying service
specializes in buying radio and tv time and reselling it to advertisers and advertising agencies
how many people can get the message?
how often will the message be received?
does the medium actually reach potential consumers?
how much does it cost to reach a certain number of people?
a series of drawings depicting the key scenes of the planned ad
advertising goods and services to wholesalers and retailers who, in turn, resell these items to a more general audience
advertising those items that are used in the further production of goods and services (copy machines, forklifts, drill presses)
advetising aimed at doctors, lawyers, architects, nurses, and others who might influence the buying process or use the product in their profession
advertising aimed at farmers and possibly including products such as feed, fertilizers, seed, and chemicals
tracking studies
examine how the ads perform during or after the actual campaign. samples of consumers are studies to see if they recall the ads, if their attitudes about the product have changed, and if they have bough the product or used the service advertised
message reach
involves pretesting the messages that have been developed for the campaign. guards against double meanings or overlooked sexual connotations that might have eluded the creative staff. other tests involve showing mock ups of mags that contain the prototype of the print ad and rought cuts of tv ads to test audience . consumer recall is tested
formative research
done before the campaign begins to help guide the creative effort. identify the audiences, audience profiling
public relations
1.involves working with public opinion 2.concerned with communication 3.managment function the art and social science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counseling organization leaders, and implementing planned programs of a ction that serve both the organization's and public's interest
Ivy Lee
first public relations pioneer opened publicity office press rep for the anthracite coal operators and the PA railroad "declaration of principles" endorsed the concepts of openness and honesty in dealing with the public humanized buisness and demonstrated that public relations is most effective when it affects employees, customers, and community members
Edward Bernways
credited with writing the first book on public relations, Crystallizing Public Opinion
pr campaign steps gathering 2.planning 3.communication 4.evaluation
info gathering
what is learned influences the remaining steps means include organizational records, trade journals, public records, and reference books
strategic: involve long range, general goals that the organization wishes to achieve tactical: more specific, detail the tasks that must be accomplished by every dept in the organization to achieve the strategic goals
management by objectives
means the organization sets observable and measurable goals for itself and allocates its resources to meet those objectives
decisions concerning the natures of the msgs and the types of media to be used are made
one method included gauging the volume of coverage the campaign generated volume doesnt equal results questionnaires, surveys, panels, reader interest studies, and experimental campaigns
areas where public relation is practiced
business:pr healps the marketing process by instilling consumers a positive attitude toward the company gov't: agencies hire pr specialists to help the me explain their activities to citizens and to assit the news media in their coverage education: pr work in both schools and higher education, most visible area of practice is in elementary and high school concerns facilitating communication between educators and parents nonprofit orgs
other areas where pr is practiced
professional associations entertainment interntaional pr: corps with branches throughout the world, global news media, an interrelated world economy, fastest growing area politics:importance of pr in political campaigns increases with every election environment: represent both advocacy groups and industries crisis management: ultimate test for the pr is dealing with a crisis
investor relations
entails buildinga favorable image for a company and keeping shareholders happy
public relations student society of americas lists of lists
1.effective wrtten communication 2.persuasive speaking and presentational ability
moderation is key. in ethical dilemmas the proper way of behaving lies between doing too much and doing too little golden mean: extreme behaviors closer towards average is most acceptable
right is right and should be done no matter what the consequences. categorical imperative:discovered by an examination of conscience, the conscience informs us what is right
argued that justice emerges when everyone is treated without social differentiations. all parties in a problem situation should be placed behind a barrier (veil of ignorance) that conceals roles and social differentiations and that each participant be treated as an equal member of society . we should structure our actions to protect the most vulnerable members of society
ralph potters model of ethical decision making
definitions-values-principles-loyalties-action the model asks one to consider four aspects of the situation before taking action 1.define the situation 2.determine what values are involved 3.establish what thical principles apply 4.decide where our loyalties lie
in a media context means the tendency of reporters or other media professionals to accept the ideas, attitueds, and opinions of the group that they cover or with whom they have a great deal of contact individuals have confused their loyalties, duty to their profession or journalism has been lost
SPJ society of professional journalists
1.seeks the truth and report it 2.minimize harm 3.act idndependently (should be free of obligation to any interest other than the public's right to know 4. be accountable
outside pressure groups
various segments of the audience can band together and try to exert control over the operation of mass media organizations can resort to applying legal pressuring during the license renewal process, threat of economic pressure (boycotts) or rely on the negative effects of bad publicity to achieve their goals
pressure councils
independent agency whose job is to monitor the performance of the media on a day to day basis. examines complaints from the public about erroneous or deficient press coverage. no enforcement powers. unfavorable publicity is the only sanction the council can bring to hear
advertising lecture definition
paid mass mediated or nonpersonal attempt to persuade by an identified sponsor about a product, service, organization, or idea
early advertising
babylonian barkers (yelled ads) greek and roman signs (understandable to ppl that don't understand language) Siquis: pinned up ads in town square handbill: portable classified: one liners penny presS: key to advertising expense display ads: 1/2 pg, full pg magazine ads: increase color and photos
advertising in the 20th century
FTC: federal trade commission: grey lady of washington, ineffective at 1st, now strong: regulate false misleading and deceptive ads 1922: radio ads, program sponsorship 1945: tv ads, sponsorships and live commercials 1982: movies and VHS/ DVD advertising 1994: web banners "let the buy beware" glue milk, painted turkeys = ok
in house agency
company like Walmart, create within no outside advertising all in Arkansas
creative boutique
funny commercials of the 60s specializes in the creative side of advertising
agency functions
account management, creative, media planning, research, support staff
unique selling proposition
1 aspect of a product that they can identify and make it better than another ex: better gas mileage
advertising strategies
brand name advertising slogans and jings unique selling proposition (USP) brand image motivational research segmenting and proposition subliminal advertising (against the law) infomercials AIDA approach (Attention Interest Desire Action)
people are motivated by
sex and fear of death
dividing the population by certain demographics and determine their need
defense of advertising
subsidizes our media increases GNP (new jobs and industries) helps economies of scale (lower costs for consumerS) informs consumers helps create competition
criticisms of advertising
intrusive manipulative promotes consumption and waste exploits children and the less education promotes harmful products reinforces stereotypes conducive to monopolies
Self regulation
code covers contracts, credit extensions, unfair tactics, prohibits misleading price claims, offensive statements and the circulation of harmful rumors. enforcement is voluntary AAAA American Association of Ad Agencies: larger groups AAF American Ad Fed: smaller groups BBB Better Business Bureau: keeps records of groups with bad service CARU: aimed at ads that target kids
Gov't regulated
FTCL overseas ad industry due to deceptive ads FCC FDA BATF Bureau of Tobacco and Firearms BATF
types of regulations
comparative, deceptive, testimonials, questionable practices
cease and desist
federal trade commission order notifying an advertiser that a certain practice violates the law, failure to comply with this order can result in fines being levied against the advertiser
affirmative disclosure
explain what is wrong with product or ad
consent order
federal trade commission order in which the advertiser agrees to halt a certain advertising practice without admitting any violation of the law
advertising effectiveness
message research (communication tests, split runs, focus groups) audience research segmenting by: demographics, psychographics (mental images created in minds about product) purchase behavior media research: CPM, GRP, reach and frequency
cost per thousand price of ad divided by 100 what it will cost to show to 1000 viewers
gross rating points paid after determined how many people say the ad
future of advertising
internet advertisng: banners, spam, cookies free services with advertising: computers, long distance internet access interactive advertising more intrusive: nontraditional media
lecture definition of pr
managing problems and issues 2 way communication between organization and publics serves public interest utlizes change early warning system uses research ethical
shorter definition of pr
prevent misinformation management of communication between an organization and its publics management of an organizations relations with its various publics management of an organizations reputation
pr tools
agricultural business trade professional
preliminary stage
catholic propaganda revolutionary war propagating faith
publicity stage
amos kendall: jackson's press secretary who cleaned up the president's image pt barnum: circus coverage gather attention
responsive stage
respond to crises ivy lee: helped recover rockefeller's image after mining disaster in colorado ludlow massacre (coal mining deaths)
scientific persuasion stage
bernays: company for public info, convinces public to support WWI, used Freud's psychology "engineering of consent" buy into an idea troches of freedom: makes socialist women smoke in public
professional responsible stage
3 mile island tylenol: cyanide: recall and reimburst gas leaks
function of pr
to build mutually beneficial relationships with strategic constituents to help an organization function within societal expectations and meet its goals and fulfill its purpose to manage an organizations reputation and image
those affected by the decision employees government activist groups media constituents customers investors community unions normative organizations
asymmetrical model of pr
organization has one purpose only example: getting a candidate elected
symmetrical model of pr
many different purpose
1 way model of pr
no feedback ex: media
2 way model of pr
expecting feed back ex:focus groups
pr approaches: reactive
already a problem
pr approaches: proactive
working to prevent problems
pr approaches: interest
what corporation looks like
pr approaches: self
self interest
other pr tools
press agentry (media tours) lobbing and grass roots pseudoevents advertising crisis communication issue management corporate communication (internal constituents) internet
corporate communication
managing the internal relataions of an organization to enhance effectiveness through: printing communication broadcast communication internet communication face to face communication
minimal standards provide the bottom line below which we should not fall
ideal behaviors what we should do in order to be moral individuals and professionals
jane cooke
created a fake story on an 8 yr old heroine addict sold rights to story to make a screen play washington post
stephen glass
the new republic fabricated stories fake notes, voiceboxes, business cards
ethics: greek ethos
character philosophical foundations of decision making, choosing good over bad
morality: latin mores
way or manner in which we behave socially approved customs
moral reasoning
thinking about ethics: dialectical, analytical, cathartisc consistent over time moralizing: giving advice that is particular to the situation
ethics as social responsibility
larger impact of our actions hutchins commission: meaningful news, acess for comment and criticism, clarifying goals and values, full access to the day's intelligence
ethics as individual responsibility
truth and deception undue influence conflict of interests
1st level of moral development
instinct what is right is determined by needs and gut instinct often based on penalties and rewards
2nd level of moral development
custom learned through cultural interaction understand our duties and roles in social relationships
3rd level of moral development
conscience actively chosen by indvidual doing what is right even if no one is watching action follows reasoned deliberation
deontological ethics
characteristics: duty based ethics founded on moral maxims absolutists and principle oriented priori guidance sources of maxims: authority religious leaders logical reasoning categorical imperative (what is right for one is right or everyone) absolutely no grey areas, learn at an early age, come from authority, amboson (advocate to protect you absolutely)
teleological ethics
characteristics: consequence based ethics relative and people oriented consideration of consequences: algorims (doing good for the good of the people) egosim (doing it for yourself) utilitarianism (process of weighing pros and cons) not a maxim, consequence based on ethics, people oriented less authorative
relative ethics
characteristics: no such thing as objective moral maxims no ones moral code is superior to anothers what is ethical depends on cultural views situational, no just one rule, veil of ignorance (treat everyone the same)
categorical imperative
people should behave as they wish all others would behave right is right
greatest benefit for hte greatest number we are to determine what is right or wrong by considering what will yield the best ratio of good to bad for the general society
self determination
human beings deserve respect for their decisions
APME Associated Press Managing Editors
adopted a code that discussed responsibility, accuracy, integrity, and independence. covers issues such as plagiarism and diversity
motion picture production code
proscriptive, described what should be avoided in order for filmmakers to get their movies past esixting censorship boards and listed what topics should be handled carefully as not to rile existing pressure groups.
questions that lead to ethical decisions
what do i know? what do i need to know? what is my communication purpose? what organizational policies and professional guidelines should i consider? how can i include other people with different ideas in the decision making process? who are the stakeholders? what if the roles were reversed? how would i feel if i were in one of the shoes of the stakeholders? what are the possible consequences of my actions? what are my alternatives to maximize my ethical duty and minimize harm?
PR departments
1. corporate communications: handles communication with internal publics (workers, shareholders, unions) relations: deals with external publics (community residents, customers, the gov't) relations: deal with news media
model name: press agentry/publicity direction: one way
uses persuasion and manipulation to influence audience to behave as the organization desires
model: public info direction: one way
uses press releases and other one way communication techniques to distribute organizational info. moves away from pseudo events and half truths. used no formal research to guide the work.
model: two way symmetrical direction: two way
uses communication to negotiate with publics, resolve conflict, and promote mutual understanding and respect between the organization and its publics. scientific marketing, used research to get inside the heads of consumers and to help fashion the sell messages "scientific persuasion"
2 way symmetrical model
casts public relations in the role of mediator instead of persuader. pr pros listen to the concerns of clients and key publics and help them adapt to one another. all parties must benefit
motivational research
nalysis of the motives behind consumer decisions, used especially by advertisers and marketers to assess attitudes toward products and services
committee for public information
intended to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American intervention in World War I associated with Bernay, used Freud's psychology
national association of broadcasters code of good practice cervered advertising and general program practices. court ruled that it placed undue limitations on advertising and eventually dissolved addressed four areas: childrens tv, indecency, violence, and drug and substance abuse.
american society of newspaper editors responsibility, freedom of the press, independence, accuracy, impartiality, fair play, and decency
Jason Blair
journalist who resigned from the New York Times in May 2003, after he was caught plagiarizing and fabricating elements of his stories.
advocate to protect you absolutely individual in a media org assigned to handle complaints from audience members
comparative advertising
advertisement in which a particular product, or service, specifically mentions a competitor by name for the express purpose of showing why the competitor is inferior to the product naming it.
deceptive advertising
use of false or misleading statements in advertising
persuasive phenomenon
use of advertising to provide essential health info with benefits extending beyond the interests of the advertisers themselves
involves putting subjects into brain scanning machinery and pitching conepts and images at them to see which one makes the lights flash
excluded middle
premised on the idea the people provided with incomplete but suggestive info will draw false assumptions
objective approach
report that is complete precise accurate view
referes to lack of confidence in and a feeling of distrust toward the political system
self efficacy
persons believe that through his or her efforts he or she can influence political social events
sleeper effect
as time passes the source of negative attack decay but its content remains and becomes more powerful. you may forget where or when you learned something but the negative info stays with you

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