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Microbiology exam 2 study guide


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Define Pathogy?
is the study of disease
Define Etiology?
is the study of the cause of a disease.
Define Pathogenesis?
is the development of a disease.
Define infection?
is the colonization of the body by a pathogen.
Define disease?
is an abnormal state in which the body is not functionally normally.
Define commensalism?
is one organism is benefited and the other is unaffected.
Define mutualism give an example?
is when both organisms benefit, example E.coli in the intestine produces vitamin K, prevent growth of harmful organisms
Define parasitism?
is when one organism is benefited at the expense of the other, can cause disease.
True or false most normal microbiota are opportunistic pathogens depending on the state of their host?
When is there a problem with normal flora?
There is a problem with normal flora when it is where it does not live normally or when the host's immmune system is compromised
Where is the location of normal microbiota on the human body?
The normal microbiota are normally in the entry point, eyes, mouth, nose, throat, skin, intestine, genital tract and lower urinary system.
What is microbial antagonism?
is competition between microbes
What are some protective measures normal microbial take to protect the host?
Normal microbial protect the host by occupying niches that pathogens might occupy, prducing acids, producing bacteriocins?
Define bacteriocins?
are substances bacteria produce to hold back other bacteria
What are probiotics?
are live microbes applied to or ingested into the body, intended to exert a beneficial or restore missing bacteria
Name some normal Flora of the skin?
Staph aureus and staph epidermis are normal flora of the skin
Name some normal flora of the intestines?
Gram neg rods, anaerobes, aerobes, ecoli are normal flora for the intestines
Name some normal flora of the mouth?
Some normal flora of the mouth are streptococcus, lactobacillus and candida
Normal flora of the urogenital system?
Some normal flora of the urogenital system are staph epidermidis, & lactobacillus
What is Koch's postulate used for?
is used to proves the cause of an infectious disease
Describe Koch's postulate?
Have a sick animal, colonize microorganism a pure colony, identify organism, microorganism is injected into a healthy animal, amimal must reproduce disease, isolate organism from sick animal, identify organism from sick animal.
How did Koch's postulate work with HIV?
Koch's postulate did not work with HIV because it mutate with every repliucation and human HIV does not cause animal HIV.
Define symptom of infectious disease?
is a change in body function that is felt by a patient as a result of disease.
Define Sign of infectious disease
is a change in a body that can be measured or observed as a result of disease.
Define syndrome?
signs and symptoms that accompany a disease
Define communicable disease?
is a disease that is easily spread from one host to another
Define contagious disease?
is one that is easily spread from one host to another
Define noncommunicable disease?
disease is a disease not past from one host to another.
Define Incidence of disease?
is the fraction of a poulation that contracts a disease during a specific time
Define prevalence of a disease?
is the fraction of the population having a specific disease at a given time
What does ID stand for in the disease world?
ID- infectious dose is the number of microbes required for infection to proceed.
What is the prodromal period?
is when mild symptoms start and replicating get ahead of the immune system
Define incubation period?
is when there aren't any symptoms or signs of the disease, the immune system is still winning.
Define infectivity?
organism to establish a focal point of infection the # is critical.
Define invasiveness?
Invasivenesspathogen to spread to a adjacent or other tissue.
Define virulence?
is the ability to cause disease.
Define pathogen?
is a parasite that casues disease.
Name some predisposing factors to suspectibility to disease?
Age, fatique, lifestyle, chemotherapy, climate and weather, inherited treaits, short urethra on women.
Define focal infection?
is an systemic infection that began as a local infection.
Define a subclinical infection?
is one without any noticable signs or symptoms
What is a secondary infection?
is one that arises from a primary infection by an opportunistic pathogen
What is a primary infection?
is an acute infection that causes the initial illness
Define Toxemia?
is toxins in the blood
Define viremia?
is a virus in the blood
Define bacteremia?
is bacteria in the blood
Define septicemia?
is the growth of bacteria in the blood
What is an opportunistic pathogen?
cause disease when the host's defenses are compromised or when they grow in a part of the body that is is not natural to them
What is a true pathogen?
is capable of causing disease in a healthy person with normal immune defenses
What is a latent disease?
is a disease with a period of no symptoms when the patient is inactive
Define Acute disease?
is a quickly developing disease
Define chronic disease?
is a slow progressing disease.
define subacute disease?
is between an acute and a chronic disease.
What is herd immunity?
is when the majority of the population is immune to it.
What is pandemic mean?
Worldwide contamination
What is an epidemic disease?
is a disease acquired by many hosts in a given area in a short time.
What is an edemic disease?
is a disease constantly in a population.
What is a sporadic disease?
is an occasionally occuring disease
Define prevalance?
is the total number of cases of the disease in a specific location.
What is the incidence of disease mean?
of disease is the number of new cases of a disease in a given area.
Define connmunicable and contagious disease?
both diseases are past from host to host.
What is sign of disease?
is a change in a body that can be measured or observed result of disease.-fever
What is a symptom?
is a change in body function that is felt by patient- feeling crappy
What are porbiotic?
are live microbes given to benefit person
What is opportunistic?
is a pathogen that depends on the state of the host being compromised
What is parasitism?
is when one organism benefits at the expense of an other
What is commensalism?
is when one organism benefits and the other is not affected.
What is mutualism?
is when both organisms benefit
Define bacterstatic?
inhibits the growth of microbes
Define bacteriocidal
kills the microbes
How does heat affect most bacteria?
Heat affects bacteria by denaturizing its protein
Name 5 targets of antibacterials?
Antibacterial target cell walls, protein synthesis-ribosomes, nucleic synthesis- DNA, cell membrane, folic acid
Define symboisis?
is the relationship between mormal flora and the host.
Define synergistic?
is when the work togther to benefit example pencillin and streptomycin to treat endocarditis it allows penicillin to get through.
Define Therapeutic index?
the ratio of the dose of the drug that is toxic to humans as compared to it minimum effective dose
Minimum inhibitory concentration is the lowest concentration of an antimicrobial drug that prevents visible bacterial growth
Minimum lethal concentration is the lowest concentration needed to kill a defined fraction of bacteria or fungi
Factors that influence antimicrobial agents?
IV fluid, bowel, competition binding sites, competetive binding proteins, liver damage, kidney damage.
Dissemination define
Ways resistance disseminate?
Resistance disseminate by jumping genes, transconjugant, mutation
Name 3 mechanism of antibiotic resistance?
3 Ways of antibiotic resistance are
alter target
alter uptake- pump out
drug inactivation- prod enzymes
use alternate metablolic pathways
Broad spectrum affects what kinds of organisms?
affect all prokaryotic except mycobacteria and psuedomonas
example chloramphenicol and tetracycline
Narrow spectrum effect what kinds of organisms?
effect gram + organism examples antibiotics M<acrolides Erytromycin, Azithromycin,
Systems and mechanisms involved in Type III hypersensitivity?
Type III hypersensivity involves B cells and is the immune mediated complex the antibody mediated inflammation circulating IgG complex deposits in basement membrane of target Organs
diseases some auto immune diseases, systemic lupus, erthematosus, rheumatiod arthritis rheumatic fever
System and mechanisms involved in Type II hypersensitivity?
Hyersensivity II involves B cell and IgM & IgG antibodies act upon cells w/complement & causes lysis
blood group incompatibility, pernicious anemia, myasthemia
System and mechanism involved in Type I hypersensivity?
TYpe I hypersensitivity involive the Bcells and IgE antibodies, mast cells, basophils and allergic mediators Ex: anaphylaxis, atopic allergies, hay fever, asthma- allergic Th2
System and mechanisms involived in type IV hypersensitivity?
Hypersensitivity IV involves T cells, cytotoxic cells it is a delayed heypersensitivity and sytotoxic reactio in the tissues: contact dermatitis, graft rejection, some types of auto immune disease.
Define generation time?
Generation time is the time it take for a microbe to divide and double its population- varies among species.
Name 3 treatment and preventative measure to avoid allergies?
avoid allergen, sensitivity treatment, take drugs to block actioin of lymphocytes, mast cells, and chemical mediators
How do antihistimines, aspirin, epinephrin, throphyline work to prevent allergic reaction?
They counter act the effects of the cytokines on the targets
How does Cromolyn act to prevent allergic reaction?
Cromolyn acts onthe surface of the mast cell no degranulation
How do momclonal drugs work to inhibit allergic attack?
Monoclonal drugs inactivate IgE
Name 4 factors relating to control of microbial Organisms?
effect of high and low intial load- if death/growth rate the same harder to kill,
# microbes
microbial characteristic
controlling environment-fat protecting?
time exposure- spore take longer
How does radiation affect microbes?
Radiation destroys the DNA of microbes, Ionizing-gamma
How do chemical agents affect microbes?
Chemicals agents affect microbes by disrupting membrane or denaturizing proteins
How does corticosteroid work at preventing allergic reactions?
Corticosteroids keep plasma cell from synthesizing IgE & inhibits T cells
What is the problem in treating antifungal microbes?
The problem with treating anitfungal microbes is that they are eukaryotic cell like us so we can not target their DNA or ribosomes because it would damage ours
Name 3 characteristics of an ideal antimicrobial drug?
Selectively toxicity- kill organism not person
Reach site of infection at inhibitory concentration- get through puss and blood
Penetrate & bind to target, avoid inactivity & extrusion -must get into bacteria to kill
Sepsis vs asepsis?
Sepsis is bacterial contamination, Asepsis is free of pathogens
Name 5 classes of antibodies?
IgE-hypersensitivity allergy, min normally
IgM-1st to immune response,Huge cell
IgG-memory found in blood, migrates to tissues, lymph, CSF, and small enough to pass into placenta.
IgA- present mucous found in breast milk
IgD- cell surface molecule
Describe functions of IgA?
IgA is found in mucousal cells of Resp., GI, urinary tract, also found in
breast milk to help protect newborn form GI infections, lines epithethial cells
Describe IgE?
IgE is normally is min. except with allergies and parasites. It binds to amst cells activates mast cells to produce histamine and beta active.
What kind of immunity do newborns produce? Explain chance of infection why?
Newborns produce IgM so they are more suseptible to disease, the IgG that is found is from there mother.
What are monoclonal antibodies?
They will produce a single specificity and are produced in the lab, antibody is injected into animal, extracted, isolated, frozen, thawed, and added to culture to regrow.
What are polyconal antibodies?
They are our normal antibody response
How does the immune system utilize antibodies?
1. promote phagocytosis-opsonization
2.complement activiate-target
3.aggregation of antigen
4. inhibit attachement, mobility
Describe cell mediated antibody response?
Response to viral infected antigen, Th recognizes abnormal cell acting as an antigen presenting cell activates cytotoxic Tcell to destroy infected cell
Name steps in the growth of bacteria?
1 bacteria cell starts to enlarge and chromosome starts to duplicate, septum starts to appear. Septum allowed to grow inward chromosome separtate and spetum is completed through cell. The two cell separate
What is the difference between the growth of a human and a bacteria?
Bacteria's growth is about replication humans about enlargement
3 ways to classify antibacterials?
1 Origin
2.bactercidal or bacterstatic activity site
Describe activation of cytotoxic T cell?
It acts by destroying infected cell with granules that poke holes in it and lysis occurs- it destroys the factory
How do vaccines work?
Vaccines work by immediately activating our memory cells that get antibodies to surround the virus befor it has time to do any damage. It is all a number game, heighten response
Which Th cell bring about symptoms of allergies?
Th2 bring about symptoms of allergies Th1 cell mediated gets rid of allergen properly
Type I hypersensitivity predisposing factors?
genetics- not same just predisposed to allergies
Defect in target organs
Name some protein synthesis inhibitors?
Tetracycline, chloramphenicol, Erythromycin, clinclomycin, Oxalolidinones, aminoglycosides, streptomycin, amikacin all bacterstatic except aminoglycosides
Which drugs work to inhibit folic acid?
Which inhibit DNA gyrase?
Cipro- Quinolones
Name some common aminoglycosides and what do they do?
Streptomycin- oldest neomycin-toxic topic use, tobranmycin, amikacin blocks 30s good agains gram - rods,
gentramycin 1st broad spectrum
Aminoglycosides are used to treat what?
Severe sepsis and are bactercidal caution inner ear and kidney damage
Aminoglycoside with betalactams are used to treat what?
are used to treat pseudomonas
Aminoglycosides can damage what part of a person?
damage to kidney and inner earexcept streptomycin only ear
What are macrolides and what do they do, some side effects?
They inhibit protein synthesis at the 50s ribosome
problems with GI complications
used to treat chlamydia example Azithromycin
What does MIC stand for ?
Minimum inhibitory MIC50 concentration mg/L of 50% of the population of bacteria the lower the better
How do cell membrane inhibitors work and what are the drawbacks?
The cause an increase in permeability of the cell membrane and leakage of cell content Drawback we have cell membranes so can affect us too
How do sulphonamide combat bacteria?
They inhibit folic acid synthesis not allowing nucleic acid synthsis used to treat UTI Broad spectrum, many interaction with other drugs due to protein binding
Antibiotic that inhibit nucleic acid synthesis?
Sulphonamide, Trimethoprin, quinolones-cipro rifampricin
What are quinolones used for?
Are used to treat resistant micorobes
What does chloramphicol target and what are some negatives?
It targets protein synthesis, bacteriostatic gr+and gr- chlamydia, can cause aplastic anemia
What is used to treat MRSA?
What keeps cell wall inhibitor from effecting gram- bacteria?
The outer membrane lipopolysaccharide layer
Name some beta-lactamase inhibitors? What do they do?
Clavulanic acidSulbactam, Tazobactam they inhibit enzyme from deactivating the betalatam
How do beta lactam antiboitics work and name some?
They work by binding to PCP and destablizing the cell wall so it burst. Penicillin, cephalsporin, carbapenems, monobactoms, cephamycin
Name some cell wall synthisis inhibitors?
Cycloserine, glycopeptides,-vancomycin, teicoplanin
Betalactams-penicillin, cepahalsporin, carbopenaoms, monobactams
How do cell wall inhibitors work?
They effect the peptiglycan layer, weaken walls, exposed to hypotonic environment, membrane bulges, and burst due to weakened walls
What happens when sugar or salt are add to food for perserving?
Bacteria need a isotonic environment by adding the sugar or salt causes water loss causing plasmolysis
Define autotroph?
Uses CO2 as a c sourc and is usually chlorophyll organism
Define Hetertroph?
Organism that obtain C from organic sources living-us
Define inorganic?
atom or molecule that contains combination of atom other that C & H -metal their salts, wather CO2
Define Organic?
Contains C & H are usually living products- glucose, lipids, CH4 proteins
what are the energy sources and carbon sources of Phototrophs, photoautotrophs?
Photoautotroph energy source is light and carbon= CO2
Photohetertroph energy source is light and carbon source is organic
Define macronutrients?
are required in large quanties play a principal role in cell structure and metabolism, carbo, proteins
What are micronutrients?
Trace elements needed in small quantities and involve enzyme funciton and maintennance of protein structure Cofactor enzymes Mg,Zn, Ni
What is the difference between psychrophiles, mesophiles, and thermophiles?
Psychro- grow best in the cold, meso- around our temperature, and thermo like it hot.
Define halophiles?
They can tolerate up to 15% salt concentration
What is an obligate anaerobes?
Will die in the presence of oxygen
What is an obligate aerobe?
It needs oxygen to survive
What is a facultative anaerobe?
Can live with or without oxygen
What is a microaerophile?
Can live with a little oxygen
Capnophiles is what?
Grows better in higher CO2
How does bacteria grow numerically?
It replicated in optimum conditon expodentially
Describe growth curve and phase?
Lag phase cell enlarge, no replication
Log phase cell dividing, major increase more growing than dying, most suspeptible
stationary same dying as grow
Death phase more die than grow
Ideal Characteristic of disinfectant?
1 rapid action
2 maintain efficacy in presence of puss or blood
3 low toxicity
4 user safety
5 material compatibility
Define disinfection?
The destruction vegetative pathogens but not endospores
inanimate objects
Define sterilization?
Is the complete destruction or removal of all viable microorganisms- inanimate objects
kill prions, spores, viruses
autoclave, ethylene gas
Define antisepsis?
Is a chemical applied to body surfaces to destroy or inhibit vegetative pathogens
on living tissue
Hydrogne peroxide
Define degermination?
Physical or chemical methods that reduce the microbial load on the skin mechanical scrubs?

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