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Vocab WWI


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Committee on Public Information
goal of the committee was to persuade Americans the war represented a battle for democracy and freedom
Eastern Front
Name given to the fighting on the German-Russian, Austro-Russian and Austro-Romanian fronts
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
a signed agreement between Russia and the Central Powers when Russia withdrew from the War. Russia surrendered Poland, the Ukraine and other territory
Sussex Pledge
German pledge to warn neutral ships and passenger vessels before attacking
Sabotage and Sedition Acts
passed in 1918 made it a crime to say, print or write almost anything negative about the government
Triple Entente
pre-WWI alliance between Great Britain, France and Russia
the state of not taking sides, especially in a war or dispute
Information given to show something or someone in a biased way
Croix de Guerre
French award from bravery (Cross of War); Henry Johnson, an African American soldier, was the first American to receive this honor
Western Front
the name given to the line of trenches which stretched from the English Channel across the battle fields of France and Belgium during WWI. It was called the Western Front because it was west of Germany
a group of communists who overthrew the democratic Russian government
Great Migration
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
Shell Shock
Medical condition caused by prolonged exposure to the distressing experiences of trench warfare
National War Labor Board
board created to ensure the production of vital war materials
Treaty of Versailles
most famous WWI treaty; treaty between Germany and the allied powers in which Germany accepted full responsibility for the war and agreed to pay reparations; the US did not ratify the treaty
Balance of Power
system that prevents any one country from dominating the others
the gathering of resources and preparation for war
Fourteen Points
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
feeling of intense loyalty to one's country or group
people who opposed the use of violence and war
Allied Powers
the coalition formed by Britain and her colonies (including Australia, New Zealand, Canada and India), France and Russia from the beginning of the war, and later other countries including Belgium, Italy and the United States
Central Powers
World War I alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire
League of Nations
a union of countries formed in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles to uphold peace, security and promote settlements by arbitration
Term used to describe the deadlock on the Western Front during the First World War.
Trench Warfare
Form of fighting whereby two sides fight each other from opposing trenches
Liberty Bonds
war bond sold to Americans; 2/3 of war budget
Food Administration
Agency created to encourage farmers to produce more and to persuade the public to eat less; goal was to assure enough food was available for the troops; encourages "Wheatless Mondays, "Meatless Tuesdays" and "Porkless Thursdays."
Armistice Day
11am, November 11, 1918 (11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918)
a limited portion or allowance of food or goods; limitation of use
Triple Alliance
pre-WWI alliance between Italy, Germany and Austria-Hungary
British passenger liner sunk off the coast of Ireland by German u-boats on May 7, 19
nickname for American troops in Europe
compensation or repayment; compensation payable by a defeated nation for damages sustained by another nation as a result of hostilities
Espionage Act
1917 act gave the government new ways to combat spying
a rise in military expenditure, an increase in military and naval forces, more influence of the military men upon the policies of the civilian government, and a preference for force as a solution to problems
National Self Determination
right of the people to decide how they should be governed
Zimmerman Telegram
January 1917 the British intercepted a telegram from the German government to the Mexican government offering German support if Mexico declared war against the US; offered to return land Mexico lost the US
person who believes in the political theory supporting collective or government ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods
German submarine, taken from the German 'Unterseeboat'
Alliance System
defense agreement among nations
Home Front
The name given to the part of war that was not actively involved in the fighting but which was vital to it
The isolation of an enemy's ports by means of warships to prevent passage of persons or supplies. To block or prevent the import or export of supplies from a port.
Schlieffen Plan
A strategy drawn up by Germany to avoid fighting a war on two fronts
teams of troops, ships or equipment
Victory Gardens
backyard gardens; Americans were encouraged to grow their own vegetables to support the war effort
American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
American troops in Europe; led by John J. Pershing
Selective Service Act
established a military draft in the United States
War Industries Board
supervised the nation's industrial production
Four Minute Speeches
short, patriotic talks given before movies or plays; goal was to gain support for the war and sell liberty bonds

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