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WWI Vocab- History

Terms

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Neutrality
The state of not taking sides, especially in a war or dispute
Sabotage and Sedition Acts
Passes in 1918 made it a crime to say, priont or write almost anything negitive about the government
Fourteen Points
The war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
Triple Alliance
Pre WWI alliance between Italy, Germany, and Austria-Hungary
Sussex Pledge
German pledge to warn neutral ships and passenger vessels before attacking
Convoy
Teams of troops, ships, or equipment
Selective Service Act
Established a military draft in the United States
Bolshevik
A group of communitsts who overthrew the democratic Russian government
Western Front
The name given to the line of trenches which stretched from the English Channel across the battle fields of France and Belgium during WWI. It was called the Western Front because it was the west of Germany
U-Boats
German submarine, taken fromt the German "Unterseeboat"
Victory Gardens
Backyard gardens; Americans were encouraged to grow their own vegetables to support war effort.
Schlieffen Plan
A strategy drawn up by Gernmany to avoid fighting a war on two fronts
Lusitania
British passenger liner sunk off the coast of Ireland by German u-boats on May 7, 1915
Liberty Bonds
War bond sold to Americans; 2/3 of war budget
Nationalism
Feeling of intense loyalty to one's country or group
National Self Determination
Right of the people to decide how they should be governed
Socialist
Person who believes in the political theory supporting collective or government ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods
Reparations
Compensation or repayment; compensation payable by a defeated nation for damages sustained by another nation as a result of hostilities
Stalemate
Term used to describe the deadlock on the Western Front suring the First World War
Food Administration
Agency created to encourage farmers to produce more and to persuade the public to eat less; goal was to assure enough food was available for the troops; encourages "Wheatless Mondays", "Meatless Tuesdays", and "Porkless Wednesdays."
Balance of Power
System that prevents any one country from dominating the others
Blockade
The isolation of an enemy's ports by means of warships to prevent passage of persons or supplies. To block or prevent the import or export of supplies from a port
National War Labor Board
Board created to ensure the production of vital war materials
Triple Entente
Pre WWI alliance between Great Britain, France, and Russia
Doughboys
Nickname for American troops in Europe
Mobilization
The gathering of resources and preparation for war
Militarism
A rise in military expenditure, an increase in military and naval forces, more influence of the military men upon the policies of the civilian government, and a preferance for force as a solution to problems
Home Front
The name given to the part of war that was not actively involved in the fighting but which was vital to it
Propaganda
Information given to show something or someone in a biased way
Armistice Day
11am, November 11, 1918 (11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918)
Committee on Public Information
Goal of the committee was to persuade Americans the war represented a battle for democracy and freedom
American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
American troops in Europe; led by John J. Pershings
Zimmermann Telegram
Janurary 1917 the British intercepted a telegram from the German government to the Mexican government offering German support if Mexico declared war against the US; offered to return land Mexico lost US
Central Powers
World War I alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire
Espionage War
1917 act gave the government new ways to combat spying
Dissent
Opposition
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
A signed agreement between Russia and the Central Powers when Russia withdrew from the War. Russa surrendered Poland, the Ukraine and other territories
Shell Shock
Medical condition caused by prolonged exposure to the distressing experiences of trench warfare
Allied Powers
The coalition formed by Britain and her colonies (including Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and India), France and Russia from the beginning of the war, and later other countries including Belgium, Italy and the US
Trench Warfare
Form of fighting whereby two sides fight each other from opposeing trenches
Treaty of Versailles
Most famous WWI treaty; treaty between Germany and the allied powers in which Germany accepted full responsibility for the war and agreed to pay reparations; the US did not ratify the treaty
Eastern Front
Name given to the fighting on the German-Russian, Austro-Russian, and Austro-Romanian fronts
Alliance System
Defense agreement among nations
Rationing
A limited portion or allowance of food or goods; limitation of use
Pacifist
People who opposed the use of violence and war
Croix de Guerre
French award from bravery (Cross of War); Henry Johnson, an African American soldier, was the first American to recieve this honor
Great Migration
Movement of over 300,000 African Americas from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
Four Minute Speeches
Short, patriotic talks given before movies or plays; goal was to gain support for the war and sell liberty bonds
War Industries Board
Supervised the nation's industrial production

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