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ENGL 104 - Intro To Film - Midterm Cards


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the slightly different still images projected in rapid succession that make the smooth picture you see
-a series of comic-strip-like sketches of the shots in each scene (including lighting and camerawork)
-designed by a graphic artist and used sometimes before production
dubbing (looping)
when the actors are recorded in the studio speaking their lines and the dialogue is later put on overlapping the scenes
the overall system of relations that we can perceive among the elements in the whole film
referential meaning
-concrete, "bare-bones" summary of the plot
-subject matter of the film is often established
explicit meaning
-tells the meaning the film is trying to get across
-functions with the film's overall form
implicit meaning
-assumptions that go beyond what is explicitly stated in the film
-interpretations vary for this meaning
symptomatic meaning
-it is abstract and general
-places the film within a trend of thought that is assumed to be characteristic of the societal context in which it takes place or was produced
-the justification for certain elements of films to be there
-how humans analyze the functions of films
any significant repeated element in a film
a written outline of the film that breaks it into its major and minor parts, with the parts marked by consecutive numbers or letters
when all the relationships we perceive within a film are clear and economically interwoven
narrative form
-films that shape particular expectations by summoning up curiosity, suspense, and surprise
-it is a type of story in which the audience comes into viewing it with ceratin expectations of what is to come
-everything visibly and audibly present in the film before us
-includes all the story events that are presented and extraneous material
-repetition of scenes or characters which help the audience to see the same action in several ways
-shown often through flashbacks
-helps the audience to see situations better
in media res
-bringing the audience into a series of actions that have already started
-evokes curiosity in the viewers
the portion of the plot that lays out story events and character traits important in the opening situation
-scene where the action is presented as having a narrow range of possible outcomes
-attempts to settle the casual issues that have run through the film
-creates tension and suspense in the viewer
-moment-by-moment process that guides us in building the story out of the plot
the order, duration, and frequency of events in the story
presents factual info about the world outside the film
-may take a stand, state an opinion, or advocate a solution to a problem
categorical form
divides info into categories for organization of the viewers perspective
rhetorical form
when the filmmaker presents a persuasive argument
-it is common in all media
experimental (avant-garde) film
films that are hard to classify and are usually made by one lone director
-explores possibilities of film
abstract form (of experimental film)
(seen in Ballet mechanique)
-film is organized around colors, shapes, sizes, and movements of images
associational film
(seen in A Movie)
-draw on poetic series of transitions that suggest expressive qualitites and concepts by grouping images that may not have an immediate logical connection
-signifies the director's control over what appears in the film frame
-includes: setting, lighting, costume, and behavior of figures
-very important part of mise-en-scene
-puts the audience in the film
-can create a brand new world in a film studio
-short for property
-can become a motif of a film
-important part of mise-en-scene
-can instill the proper mood in an actor or can help motifs and causal roles in narratives
-important part of mise-en-scene
-help create the overall composition of each shot and guide our attention to certain objects and actions
-helps create a sense of space
-sets up a scale of importance
frontal lighting
-eliminates shadows
-creates a flat-looking image
sculpts a character's features and creates contrast
-comes from behind the subject
-can be positioned at different angles and can create silhouettes
-when light comes from below the subject
-tends to distort features and creates dramatic horror effects
top lighting
-brings out features of a character's face, like cheekbones
key light
the primary source providint the dominant illumination and casting the strongest shadows
fill light
less intense illumination that "fills in" and softens shadows cast by key light
high-key lighting
an overall lighting design that uses fill and backlight to create low contrast between brighter and darker areas
-shadows appear to be transparent
low-key illumination
-creates stronger contrasts and sharper, darker shadows
-lighting is hard and fill light is lessened or eliminated
-creates chiaroscuro (extremely dark and light regions)
monochromatic color design
extreme use of the limited palette principle
-only uses a few, noncontrasting colors
aerial perspective
the hazing of more distant planes
size dininution
figures farther away from us are seen to get proportionally smaller
"writing in movement" - depends on photography
short-focal-length (wide-angle) lens
tend to distort straight lines near the edge of the frame
-creates exaggerated depth
middle-focal-length (normal) lens
seeks to avoid noticeable perspective distortion
long-focal-length (telephoto) lens
-flatten the space along the camera axis
-planes seem squashed together like when you look through binoculars
depth of field
the range of distances before the lens within which objects can be photographed in sharp focus
when one image is laid over another
rear projection
foreground and background tend to look starkly separate because there is an absense of shadows from foreground to background
front projection
projects the setting ont a two-way mirror angled to throw an image onto a high-reflectance screen
-blends foreground and background smoothly
matte work
-a portion of the setting photographed on a strip of film with part of the frame empty
-can create an imaginary setting for the film
gives the audience a certain vantage point of the images
masking (hard matte)
-creates a widescreen image
-sometimes shows lights or sound equipment in the full-frame image
canted positioning
when the horizon and poles are at diagonal angles
extreme long shot
view when the figure is barely visible
long shot
figure can be seen, but background is more prominent
medium shot
body is seen from the waist up
close up
shot shows only the head, hands, feet, or a small object
extreme close up
singles out a portion of a face and isolates and magnifies a detail
one point that is important
-there is no universal meaning of camera angle or distance
-framing also has not absolute or general meanings
mobile framing
when the framing of an object changes within an image
-produces change of camera angle, level, height, or distance During the shot
-rotates the camera on a vertical axis
rotates the camera on a horizontal axis
tracking (dolly) shot
the camera changes position while traveling in any direction along the ground
briefly superimposes the end of shot A and the beginning of shot B
shot B replaces shot A by means of a boundary line moving across the screen
elliptical editing
presents an action in such a way that it consumes less time on the screen than it does in the story
axis of action
-the center line, 180 degree line where the scene's action takes place
jump cut
when 2 shots of the same subject are cut together but are not sufficiently different in camera distance and angle, which creates a jump on the screen
-violates continuity of the film
nondiegetic insert
when the filmmaker cuts from the scene to a metaphorical or symbolic shot that is not part of the space and time of the narrative
sound - t/f Question
-engages a distinct sense mode
-actively shapes how we perceive and interpret the image
-guides us through the images, pointing to things to watch
-gives new value to silence and can create an unbearable tension
related to perceived distance
frequency of sound vibrations
-perceives highness or lowness of sound
the color, or tone quality of a sound
dialogue overlap
-smooths down the vidual changes of shot
-when a filmmaker continues a line across a cut
-the beat or pulse of a sound
-speech also has rhythm and people can be identified by their voices because of it
fidelity (in regards to sound)
-refers to the extent to which the sound is faithful to the source as we conceive it
-the awareness of infidelity is often used as humor
diegetic sound
sound that has a source in the story world
nondiegetic sound
sound coming from a source outside the story world
internal diegetic sound
that which comes from inside the mind of a character
sound perspective
the sense of spatial distance and location analogous to the cues for visual depth and volume
synchronous sound
when we hear the sound at the same time as we see the source produce the sound
-opposite of asynchronous sound
simultaneous sound
when the sound takes place at the same time as the image in terms of the story events
-opposite of nonsimultaneous sound (or flashback)
sound bridge
-create smooth transitions by setting up expectations that are quickly confirmed
-also make expectations more uncertain
Director of North By Northwest
Alfred Hitchcock
Director of Blonde Venus
Josef von Sternberg
Director of Touch of Evil
Orson Welles
Director of The Harder They Come
Perry Henzell
Director of Harlan County USA
Barbara Kopple
Director of Ballet Mechanique
Fernand Leger and Dudley Murphy
Director of A Movie
Bruce Conner
Director of Meshes of the Afternoon
Maya Deren and Alexander Hammid
Director of Illusions
Julie Dash
Director of History and Memory
Rea Tajiri
Director of Citizen Kane
Orson Welles
Director of Rape
JoAnn Elam
Director of Entre Nous
Diane Kurys
Director of Meet Me In St. Louis
Vincente Minnelli
Director of Apocalypse Now
Francis Ford Coppola
Director of Blad Runner
Ridley Scott
Director of Short Cuts
Robert Altman
Director of Tampopo
Juzo Itami
different types of films

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