# Engineering terms for ENGE 1024

## Terms

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- analog
- device that uses continuous values of voltages and currents
- analog computer model
- analog circuit that simulates a physical system
- analysis
- the process of defining and seeking an answer to a problem
- cube-square law
- as an object gets smaller, the volume decreases faster than the area. surface-area to volume ratio increases with small obj.
- digital
- device that uses only discrete voltages and currents
- engineering design method
- a procedure of synthesis, analysis, communication, and implementation
- law of diminishing returns
- small inputs, the output increases linearly; larger inputs, outputs levels off
- application issue
- the lack of clarity as to whether a particular act violates a law, rule, or policy
- conceptual issue
- uncertainity about how it should be codified into clearly definied law, rule, or policy
- conflict of interest
- engineer's loyalties and obligations may compromised bc of other loyalities
- convergence
- to tend toward a common solution
- diverge
- to differ
- eminent domain
- the right of the gov't to take possesion of private property for public use
- engineering ethics
- the set of standards engineers should follow
- ethical egoism
- an act is moral if you act in your own self interest
- ethics
- concepts of right and wrong behavior
- etiquette
- the codes of behavior and courtesy
- factual issue
- uncertainity about morally relevant facts
- game theory
- a tool for evaluating optimal behavior strategies
- happiness objective function
- E(benefit)(importance)-E(harm)(importance)
- interaction rules
- expected sets of behavior
- law
- the system of rules established by authority, society, or custom
- legal rights
- just claims given to all humans through the gov't
- moral issue
- issue resolved through moral decision
- moral rights
- just claims that belong to humans
- moral theories
- framework for making moral and ethical decision
- morals
- accepted standards of rights and wrong
- rights analysis
- moral theory that equally respects each human being
- ulitarianism
- to create the most good for people
- vulcanized
- to imporve the strength and resiliency of a polymer by bining it with sulfur
- whistle blowing
- informing authorities of harmful, dangerous, ot illegal activities
- application
- process whereby appropriate information is identified for the problem at hand
- Archimedes' principle
- total mass of a floating object equals the mass of the fliud displaced
- comprehension
- the step in which the proper theory and data are used to actually solve th problem
- heuristic
- the use of speculative strategies for solving a problem
- iterative procedure
- repetition of a sequence of steps to solve a problem
- manipulative models
- a class of problems that have some physical entity that can be used to one's advantage in order to solve a problem
- parallelepiped
- a solid with six parallelogram faces that are parallel to the opposite face
- reductionism
- logically break a problem into pieces
- actuator
- a mechanism that uses pneumatic, hydraulic or electrical signals to activate equipment
- concurrent engineering
- a design approach in which specialists work together right at the beginning of a project
- delphi technique
- members of a group are intentionally separated and given the same problem. they return their solutions to the leader, the solutions are pooled , and the group members rate the ideas
- evalution matrix
- mathmatical evaluation that identifies the best solution by weighing
- feasibility study
- step of the engineeriing design method where ideas are roughed out
- global optimum
- the best condition found with constraints
- initial capital cost
- the purchase price of a product
- life-cycle cost
- the purchase price and additional costs such as labor, operation, insurance, and maintenance
- local optimum
- the best condition found w/ contraints
- nominal group technique
- ideds are discussed and then ranked
- preliminary design
- the step of the engineering design method where some of the more promising ideas are explored in more detail
- redundancy
- the use of multiple components in which each has the same capabilities
- sequential engineering
- an approach in which specialists work in compartmentalized manner
- chronological strategy
- a strategy that gives a historical account of the topic
- accurancy
- the extent to which the reported value approaches the true value and is free form error
- engineering notation
- the use of leading zeros for decimal numbers less than 1
- error
- the differenc between the the reported value and the true value
- precision
- the extent to which the measurement may be repeated and the same answer obtained
- random error
- an error that doesn''t result from a measurement methos thatis inherently wrong
- rounding error
- rounding in intermediate calculations which results in an incorrect final answer
- scientific notation
- numbers expressed in terms of decimal point
- significant figure
- an accurate dight, excluding the zero required to place the decimal point
- systematic error
- an error that results from a mearsurement method that is inherently wrong
- uncertainty
- the result from random error and describes the lack of precision
- abscissa
- the x-axis
- dependent variable
- a varible that cannot be arbitrarily selected and is determinedby the independent variable
- exponential equation
- y=kB^mx
- extrapolation
- extending beyond the data points
- independent variable
- a variable that can be arbitrarily selected
- intercept
- the value where a line interests a coordinate axis
- interpolation
- extending between the data points
- least-squares linear regression
- used to find a line that best fits the data
- linear interpolation
- the approximation of a curve with a straight line
- linear regression
- the process of finding the equation of a straight line that best fits the data
- log-log graph
- a graph in which both axes are linear
- ordinate
- the y axis
- power equation
- y = kx^M
- rectilinear graph
- a graph in which both axes linear
- regression
- going backward from the data to the equation
- semilog graph
- a graph in which one axis is logarithmic and the other in linear
- slope
- rise over run
- vapor pressure
- the pressure of the vapor in equilibrium with the liquid or the solid