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Physiological Sciences 5


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Cardiovascular diseases account for what percentage of US deaths?
Cancers are _______ most common cause of death.
_____________________ is fourth most common cause of death.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, chronic airway obstruction)
Diabetes is ______ most common cause of death.
In last 25 years, CV disease death has _________ and cancer death has __________. This is due to _________________.
decreased, increased, development in treating CV but not in cancer.
________________ people die from CV diseases yearly.
300,000 deaths annually due to ___________.
physical inactivity and poor diet
Main causes of death in 1900 were _________________.
influenza, pneumonia, tuberculosis
According to CDC, only __% of causes of death today are curable by medicine.
__%of deaths cannot be prevented by medicine. Of this __% can be controlled by lifestyle and __% are genetic.
88, 48, 24
_______ is a major lifestyle disease. __% develop due to lifestyle.
Cancer, 80
__% of deaths are due to environment.
___________ are not cause of increase in chronic diseases (diabetes, heart attack, etc). They are result of _______________.
mutations, Western lifestyle (poor diet, physical inactivity, smoking).
__________________________ are diseases that develop over an entire lifetime.
Degenerative diseases
__% of young people are already developing CV disease.
New diseases
asthma, lupus, scleroderma, gulf war syndrome, reproductive problems, multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS)
How does MCS affect various sysems?
nervous system - headaches, blurred vision, aggressiveness

immune system - allergic reactions to food and chemicals

endocrine system - females with continual menstruation or bleeding from breasts
volatile organic chemicals
__-__% of population is allergic to pesticides and fragrances.
Environmental Protection Agency
__% of chemical company's income comes from ___________.
40, pesticides
life expectancy
how long people live on average
life span
how long population can survive (hasn't changed drastically sinc 1900)
Life span remains about ___-___ years.
40% reduction in caloric intake in rats - __% increase in life expectancy and life span.
Factors in reducing physiological age
1. Sleep
2. Food intake
3. Exercise
4. Not smoking
5. Moderate alcohol consumption
6. Stress
fats, carbs, proteins are the:
3 basic macronutrients
Nathan Pritikin came up with the Pritikin diet in ____. _____ of the world consumes a diet like Pritikin's.
1947, half
Levels of structural organization
Chemical, Cellular, Tissue, Organ, System, Organism
Most common atoms in body
C, H, O, Na, N
Most common molecules in body
O2, H2O, NaCl
Complex molecules in body
carbs, proteins, fats, triglycerides
4 types of tissue
epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
made of 2 or more different types of tissue and has a characteristic shape
Life sustaining functions
1. Metabolism
2. Responsiveness
3. Conduction
4. Movement
5. Growth
6. Differentiation
7. Reproduction
2 types of metabolism
Catabolism, Anabolism
ability of tissue to respond to stimuli, associated with electrical activity of our cells, at rest cell is more negative on inside than outside
excitable cell relays signal from one part of body to another
action potential - nerve impulse
AP associated with changes in the _______________________________.
permeability of the cell membrane
Body can also communicate via _________. But it is a slower process.
3 types of muscle tissue that can contract
skeletal (main muscle tissues in body), cardiac (heart muscles), smooth (lining of arteries, intestinal tract, etc)
2 ways the body grows
hyperplasia (increase in cell number)
hypertrophy (increase in cell size)
blood glucose homeostasis
food intake - blood glucose level increases - pancreas releases insulin - stimulates primarily muscle to take up glucose - blood glucose decreases

fasting - pancreas releases GLUCAGON - stimulates liver to release glucose - blood glucose increases
glucose too high - occurs in glucose intolerance/diabetes
glucose too low
Important cellular structures
1. Membrane
2. Cytoplasm
3. Lysosome
4. Mitochondria
5. Nucleus
6. Ribosome
plasma membrane contains lipids and proteins with lipids arranged in bilayer.
phospholipids have ______ head groups.
polar, hydrophilic
repels water, fat is not soluble in water
attracted to water, polar, soluble in water
cytoplasm is location for functions such as:
protein synthesis, glycolysis, storage of fat and glycogen, and contains electrolytes
contains enzymes that break down and digest molecules
Mitochondria is the location of ___ production by _____________________, where ________ is used to convert _________ derived from nutrients into _________ providing energy for ATP synthesis.
ATP, oxidative metabolism, oxygen, hydrogen, water
DNA organized into _________________________________.
23 rod like chromosome pairs
____ is made in the nucleus. It is used to produce new ___________.
mRNA, proteins
Ribosome is the organelle where __________ are assembled and packaged in the ___________________ and sent where needed.
proteins, Golgi apparatus
2 forms of gene expression
transcription, translation
code transferred from DNA to ribosomes for translation (DNA code is copied - called mRNA transcript - mRNA goes to ribosome)
mRNA used to create new protein (protein assembly occurs at ribosome - amino acids in the cytoplasm are linked together in a sequence dictated by the mRNA - amino acids are delivered by tRNA - amino acids are linked by peptide bonds, performed by ribosome)
functions of proteins
1. enzymes
2. cytoskeleton
3. muscle contraction - myosin and actin
4. hormones
5. antibodies
6. receptors
7. channels, transporters, pumps
biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in the body
supports and organizes cell components and controls their movement, like a scaffoliding for cell and railroad tracks for movement
signal molecules
proteins produced in body in response to foreign substances
proteins imbedded in cell membrane - communicators between the outside and inside of the cell
channels transporters and pumps
in the cell membrane, allow for movement of molecules and ions from outside to inside and vice versa
body cell division
a complete set of genetic information is distributed to make 2 new daughter cells, provides new cels for growth, replenishment, and repair
cell types that lose ability to divide
nerve and muscle cells
cell types that continue to divide
blood cells, skin cells, etc
a complex disease characterized by abnormal cell division which results in tumor formation
2 types of tumors
benign (non-cancerous), malignant (cancerous)
benign tumors
slow-growing, doesn't infiltrate surrounding tissue, can be surgically removed
malignant tumors
cells may multiply rapidly and spread to other tissues of the body, called METASTASIS
mutant, cancer causing gene is called
an oncogene
has ability to transform a normal cell into a cancerous cell when activated
normal cellular gene that regulates growth and differentiation - when a mutation occurs, the growth control for the cell is deregulated
tumor suppressor genes
multi-step process - initiation, promotion, progression
chemicals that increase frequency of mutations and cause cancer
cigarette smoking causes __% if all cancer deaths
tobacco smoking/chewing
a.) lung cancer
b.) mouth cancer
c.) lip cancer
d.) greatly increased risk of cancer
a.) cigarette smoke
b.) chewing tobacco
c.) cigar smoking
d.) combination of alcohol and smoking
heavy alcohol use associated with cancers of the:
mouth, throat, esophagus, liver, and possibly breat
alcohol increases stomach secretions, which can lead to ___________ which impairs _______________________
gastritis, nutrient absorption
types of carcinogens
cigarette smoking, alcohol, diet, UV radiation, pollutants, pesticides
free radicals
molecules with unpaired electrons than can damage DNA
______________________ can block carcinogenic effect, found in _______________________.
antioxidants, cruciferous vegetables
co-carcinogens stimulate tumor growth in _________________ phase and include:
promotion, hormones, growth genes, dietary fat
how does diet affect tumor production/promotion?
dietary fat/sugar incrase free radical formation
__-__% of cancer incidents stem from genetic causes.

__% of cancers are related to lifestyle

__-__% of cancers we cannot explain


Incidence of breast cancer has ____________, mortality has ______________.
increased, remained constant
major factors in development of breast cancer
lifestyle and obesity
__________________ also important in breast cancer
steroid hormones -> E2 (estrogen)
the more fat cells one has, the more __________ that is present to convert steroid hormones to ______________.
aromatese, estrogen
risk factors associated with breast cancer
age, obesity, high-fat diet, early onset of menses, having no children, hacing 1st child after age 30, alcohol consumption, exposure to pesticides, lack of exercise, family history
protective factors against breast cancer
soy products, dietary fiber
estrogen replacement therapy - used for heart disease, but risk for breast cancer increases
most common cancer assoc. with significant mortality in men
prostate cancer
prostate gland
glad below bladder that secretes acidic solution that contributes to sperm motility and viability - tends to enlarge with age
risk factors of prostate cancer
older men (60+)
obesity and high-fat diet
ethnicity (blacks 40% more risk than whites)
90% success rate in detecting and removing early
steps for early detection of prostate cancer
rectal exams at age 40
PSA test (prostate specific antigen) at age 50
biopsy performed in 1 and 2 indicate problem
some think _________ increases risk of prostate cancer - men on low fat diet see a __% decrease in it
estrogen, 50
a low-fat diet decreases ___________ whichis a stimulator of prostate tumor growth
estrogen stimulates growth of prostate cancer in vitro (in test tube) by __%
colon cancer is ________ most common cancer in men and women
_________________________ comprises of 10-12% of all cancer deaths in US
colon cancer
colon cancer is associated with ___________ production
bile acid
Bile acid production depends on ___________________________
fat consumed in diet
____________ stored in the liver is converted to __________ which are stored in the gall bladder. Eating a fatty meal releases these ___________ so they can break up the ___.
Cholesterol, bile acids, bile acids, fat
cholesterol - primary bile acids formed in _____________ - secondary bile acids formed in __________________.
liver, intestines
________________________ cause more secondary bile acid formation.
Anaerobic bacteria in intestines
Regular aerobic exercise reduces colon cancer risk by __%
non-melanoma skin cancer
NMSC traits
low mortality
due to UV exposure
occurs more in males and light-skinned
discolored red patches that grow
normal seen in older people
most common cancer in US
UV rays cause DNA damage
brown spots on skin enlarge
functions of bones
1. support the body
2. protect organs
3. movement
4. mineral storage sties for calcium and phosphorus
5. produce blood cells from stem cells in marrow
end of bones
shaft of bone, contains marrow
resilent outside layer that covers bone, white, shiny substance
epiphyseal plate
where bone lengthens during growth phase
2 types of cells that regulate bone
osteoblasts, osteoclasts
when blood calcium level is high, they deposit calcium and phosphorus into bone structure
when blood calcium is low, they break down bone and release calcium and phosphorus
formation of bone
excessive loss of calcium from the bones
causes of osteoporosis
lack of estrogen, dietary calcium deficiency, lack of regular exercise, activities that put force on bone, excessive protein intake, excessive alcohol intake, smoking, diabetes, medications
3 main types of joints
immovable - synarthrosis
slightly moveable - amphiarthosis
freely moveable - diarthrosis
synovial joints
contain synovial fluid which lubricates joints
sits on top of knee and protects it
articular cartilage
protective and connective tissue lying on ends of bone
fibrous capsule
encloses entire joint
synovial membrane
produces synovial fluid to lubricate the joint
sponge-like tissue for shock absorbing
connect bone to bone
3 types of arthritis
gouty arthritis
rheumatoid arthritis
degeneration of articular cartilage
end of bone exposed
calcium spurs accumulate at end of bone
likely due to diet or environment
gouty arthritis
uric acid crystals deposited in joints
uric acid result of DNA breakdown
genetic link
dietary factors cause problems for people with this genetic background
rheumatoid arthritis
genetically inherited
immune system attacks its own joint tissue and causes inflammation of synovial membrane
can be improved with diet and exercise
cold water fish can also help
spinal column made of __ bones
pulmonary artery
only artery that carries deoxygenated blood
pulmonary vein
only vein that carries oxygenated blood
heart's autonomic nervous system
parasympathetic nervous system - decreases HR
sympathetic nervous system - increases HR
heart doesn't get oxygen - heart cells turn to scar tissue
blood contains...
water, blood cells (red/white blood cells, platelets), hormones, enzymes, signaling molecules, glucose, amino acids, fats
CV system functions
deliver oxygen and nutrients to body cells
remove end products fo metabolism
heart operates in 2 phases
systole - eject blood (higher BP)
diastole - relaxes and fills with blood (lower BP)
diseases of the heart
1. valvular diseases
2. arrhythmias
3. ischemia
valvular diseases
stenosis (narrowing)
regurgiation (leaky valve that doesn't close all the way)
prolapse (valve pushed too far and becomes inside out)
chambers of heart do not beat in proper sequence
lack of oxygen to heart
myocardial infarction
heart muscle dies and turns to scar tissue
hole in artery
parts of artery
elastic endothelial layer that produces chemicals like nitric oxide
smooth muscle cells - control diameter of lumen
connective tissue
common sites of ischemia
coronary arteries
carotid arteries in neck
leg arteries - claudication
accumulation of cholesterol in artery wall
fatty streaks
oxidized cholesterol and lipid accumulate in artery wall because endolethium is damaged
intermediate lesion
excessive cholesterol and fatty substances deposited as endothelial cells are damaged further by oxidized cholesterol - FIBROUS CAP forms
advanced lesion
calcium and phosphorous mineralized salts - hardening of lesion
clinical event
heart attack/stroke
rupture of fibrous cap
functions of cholesterol
part of cell membrane structure
precursor to steroid hormones
constituent of bile acids
facts of cholesterol
converted to bile and goes to gall bladder, released when fat is ingested
released into blood to provide body cells with cholesterol
body absorbs lipoproteins from blood via LDL receptor
ways to lower cholesterol pool in liver
do not ingest saturated fat or partially hydrogenated oils
decrease production of endogenous cholesterol
increase water soluble fiber intake
how cholesterol and fats are packaged
blood lipoproteins - lipids combined with proteins
lipoproteins involved in triglyceride transport
chylomicrons - seen right after meal
VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) - produced in liver, very high in triglycerides
transport form of fats
lipoproteins involved in cholesterol transport
LDL (low-density lipop) - BAD CHOLESTEROL, formed in bloodstream from VLDL
HDL (high density lipop) - GOOD, derived from liver
HMG-CoA reductase
rate-limiting enzyme endogenous cholesterol synthesis

FFA,glucose -> acetyl CoA -> HMG-CoA ---reductase stuff------> mevolonate ->-> cholesterol
stimulators of HMG-CoA
saturated fat
elevated insulin levels
trans fatty acids
has greatest impact on cholesterol levels
Saturated fat
bile acid sequestrants
bind to bile so both are excreted so less cholesterol is reabsorbed
niacin, nicotinic acid
inhibit liver's production of VLDV
drugs reduce heart attacks by __%
high resistance
low resistance

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