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Management 201 Exam 1 Terms


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the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior
what is in the best interest and benefit to an individual
self interest
set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by lower order needs
Theory X
a set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by higher order needs
Theory Y
a manifest need that concerns individuals issues of excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficulties
need for achievement
manifest need that concerns an individuals need to make an impact on others, influence others, change people or events, and make a difference in life
need for power
work condition related to satisfaction of the need for psychological growth
motivation factor
a work condition related to dissatisfaction caused by discomfort or pain
hygiene factor
healthy, normal stress
the situation in which a person perceives he or she is receiving less than he or she is giving, or is giving less than he or she is receiving
an individual who prefers an equity ratio equal to that of his or her comparison other
equity sensitive
an individual who is comfortable with an equity ration less than that of his or her comparison other
an individual who is comfortable with an equity ratio greater than that of his or her comparison other
the value or importance one places on on a particular reward
the belief that effort leads to performance
the belief that performance is related to rewards
the measure of a persons cognitive moral development
moral maturity
favorable times or chances for progress and advancement
the transformation or modification of an organization and/or its stakeholders
the call to competition, contest, or battle
the study of individual behavior and group dynamics in an organization
Organizational behavior
the science of human behavior
the science of society
the applied science of energy and matter
the science of the learned behavior of human beings
the study of overseeing activities and supervising people in organizations
the applied science of healing or treatment of diseases to enhance an individuals health and well being
the human resources of the organization
an organizations mission, purpose, or goal for existing
the tools, knowledge, and/or techniques used to transform inputs into outputs
the systems of communication, authority, and roles, and workflow
the official, legitimate, and most visible part of the system
formal organization
the unofficial and less visible part of the system
informal organization
studies conducted during the 1920s and 1930s that discovered the existence of the informal organization
Hawthorne studies
mastery of abilities essential to successful functioning in organizations
skill development
an organization in which the global viewpoint supersedes national issues
transnational organization
chinese practice of building networks for social change
manager who works in a country other than his or her home country
a cultural orientation in which people belong to loose social frameworks and their primary concern is for themselves and their families
cultural orientation in which individuals belong to tightly knit social frameworks and they depend strongly on large extended families or clans
degree to which a culture accepts unequal distribution of power
power distance
degree to which a culture tolerates ambiguity and uncertainty
uncertainty aviodance
the cultural orientation in which assertiveness and materialism are valued
cultural orientation in which relationships and concern for others are valued
whether a cultures values are oriented toward the future( long term) or toward the past and present (short term)
time orientation
all forms of individual differences including culture, gender, age, ability, religion, personality, social status, and sexual orientation
a transparent barrier that keeps women from rising above a certain level in organizations
glass ceiling
ethical theory that emphasizes the consequences or results of behavior
consequential theory
an ethical theory that emphasizes the character of the act itself rather than its effects
rule based theory
ethical theory that emphasizes the character, personal virtues, and integrity of the individual
character theory
the fairness of the outcomes that individuals receive in an organization
distributive justice
the fairness of the process by which outcomes are allocated in an organization
procedural justice
an employee who informs authorities of the worngdoings of his or her company or coworkers
whistle blower
the obligation of an organization to behave in ethical ways
social responsibility
computer based application that uses a representation of human expertise in a specialized field of knowledge to solve problems
expert system
electronically transmitting work from a home computer to the office
creative application of new technology
way in which factors such as skills, abilities, personalities, perceptions, attitudes, values, and ethics differ from one individual to another
individual differences
the psychological approach that emphasizes that in order to understand human behavior, we must know something about the person and about the situation
interactional psychology
relatively stable set of characteristics that influence an individuals behavior
personality theory that states that in order to understand individuals, we must break down behavior patterns into a series of observable traits
trait theory
-broad set of personality traits that refers to self concept
-comprised of locus of control, self efficacy, self esteem, and emotional stability
Core Self Evaluations (CSE)
an individuals generalized belief about internal control versus external control
locus of control
an individuals general belief that he or she is capable of meeting job demands in a wide variety of situations
general self efficacy
an individuals general feeling of self worth
self esteem
the extent to which people base their behavior on cues from other people and situations
self monitoring
individuals tendency to accentuate the positive aspects of himself or herself, other people, and the world in general
positive affect
an individuals tendency to accentuate the negative aspects of himself or herself, other people and the world in general
negative affect
situation that overwhelms the effects of individual personalities by providing strong cues for appropriate behavior
strong situation
personality test that elicits an individuals response to an abstract stimuli
projective test
personality assessments that involve observing an individuals behavior in a controlled situation
behavioral measure
an instrument developed to measure Carl Jungs theory of individual differences
Myers Briggs
-instrument developed by Dr. W. Marston, 1920’
-determined people fall into four basic personality or behavior groups
directing, influencing, supportive, contemplative (DISC)
process of interpreting information about another person
social perception
-assumption that an individuals behavior is accounted for by the situation
discounting principle
process of selecting information that supports our individual viewpoints while discounting information that threatens our viewpoints
selective perception
generalization about a group of people
tendency to form lasting opinions about an individual based on initial perceptions
first impression error
overestimating the number of people who share our own beliefs, values, and behaviors
the situation in which our expectations about people affect out interaction with them in such a way that our expectations are fulfilled
self fulfilling prophecy
the process by which individuals try to control the impressions others have of them
impression management
explains how individuals pinpoint the causes of their own behavior or that of others
attribution theory
the tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone elses behavior
fundamental attribution error
tendency to attribute
one’s own successes to internal causes and one’s failures
to external causes

self serving bias
psychological tendency expressed by evaluating an entity with some degree of favor or disfavor
the emotional component of an attitude
model of an attitude consisting of 3 components: affect, behavioral intentions, and cognition
ABC model
state of tension that is produced when an individual experiences conflict between attitudes and behavior
cognitive dissonance
the process of deriving attitudes from family, peer groups, religious organizations, and culture
social learning
pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experiences
job satisfaction
behavior that is above and beyond the call of duty
organizational citizenship behavior
the strength of an individuals identification with an organization
organizational commitment
the type of organizational commitment that is based on an individuals desire to remain in an organization
affective commitment
the type of organizational commitment that is based on the fact that an individual cannot afford to leave
continuance commitment
the type of organizational commitment that is based on individuals perceived obligation to remain with an organization
normative commitment
dynamic process through which the emotions of one person are transferred to another, either consciously or unconsciously, through non verbal channels
emotional contagion
acting in ways consistent with ones personal values of the organization and society
ethical behavior
enduring beliefs that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence
values that represent the acceptable behaviors to be used in achieving some end state
instrumental values
values that represent the goals to be achieved or the end states of existence
terminal values
a personality characteristic indicating ones willingness to do whatever it takes to get ones way
the process of moving through stages of maturity in terms of making ethical decisions
cognitive moral development
a change in behavior acquired through experience
modifying behavior so that a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and elicits an unconditioned response
classical conditioning
modifying behavior through the use of positive or negative consequences following specific behaviors
operant conditioning
results of a behavior that a person finds attractive or pleasurable
positive consequences
results of a behavior that a person finds unattractive or aversive
negative consequences
the attempt to develop or strengthen desirable behavior by either bestowing positive consequences or withholding negative consequences
the attempt to eliminate or weaken undesirable behavior by either bestowing negative consequences or withholding positive consequences
the attempt to weaken a behavior by attaching no consequences to it
an individuals beliefs and expectancies about his or her ability to perform a specific task effectively
task specific self efficacy
a goal setting program based on interaction and negotiation between employees and mangers
management by objectives MBO
a process of defining, measuring, appraising, providing feedback on, and improving performance
performance management
evaluation of a persons performance
performance appraisal
process of self evaluation used to improve the accuracy of performance appraisals
360 degree feedback
work relationship that encourages development and career enhancement for people moving through the career cycle
big four OD challenges

-motivational theory developed by Max Weber
-work hard and all will be ok
-protestant work ethic
-motivational theory developed by adam smith
-"enlightene"d self interest
founder of scientific management; emphasized cooperation between management and labor to enlarge company profits
Frederick Taylor
developed Theory X and Theory Y
_______built off of mc gregors theory and came up with ERG theory of motivation which grouped human needs into three basic categories __________
Alderfer; growth, relatedness, and existence
based on 3 main categories of needs, achievement, power, affiliation
McClellands Need theory
Belief that effort will not result in performance
Belief that performance will not result in rewards
The value a person places on, or the preference a person has for, certain rewards

Vroom’s Expectancy 3 Causes of Motivational Problems
-developed theory of inequity
in class, most common worst job characteristics
poor management
repetitive and boring

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