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o 26,000 and 22,000 Years ago
Vladimir, Russia
o (Russian same site with sewn on beads)
o Adult male (his own burial site), 2 adolscenece (they are buried together the kids, head to head in long trench)
o Kick ass grave goods
o Straightened mammoth tusks, ornament beads, and beads on clothing (8,000 of them)
o Each bead takes like 45 minutes of time
o Indicates modern planning habits, labor, weath,
o All ritual stuff, no functional stuff
o Looking at profound differences in society, class system
Dolni Vestonice
o Czech Republic
34,000-26,500 BC
o Some mammoth stuff being used here
o Large camp
o Several huts surrounded by mammoth bone fence
o Remains of about 1,000 mammoths
o Art is here
o First site for evidence of clay being fired
o There is a clay clim here (a little away from house)
o Figurine-Venus figurine
o There are lumps of baked clay and animal figurines broken and scattered in clay
 Blast patterns did not match being exploded in kilm
 They blew up outside of kilm
 You have to pack the insides with straw or hay inside of clay to purposely make them blow up
 Like fireworks?
o There is a face figurine with a slumping side of face (stroke)
o There is also burial of person with paralysis (maybe portrait)
o There is a 3 person burial
o 1 adult male (paralysis in legs probably couldn’t walk), 1 adolsecent male and female, ochre, ornaments. Superstructure built over them and then burned (bones are somewhat burned), mammoth tusks that are straightened (must soak in wire and over fire straighten them out over weeks
o Ukraine (18,000)
o Mammoth bone houses
o Cave bear cave, a cave bear scratchd the cave, and they added that into the painting of bision, layers
o Only cave art site with some depiction of human of human being.. Bird on stick, human, and bison?
o 13,000-25,000 BCE
o Upper Paleolithic
o (south Africa about 80,000 ya)
o bone points
o very nice complex stone tools, bifacial
o Non local stone
o A lot of shell (lots are pierced (decorative??))
o Nice stratigraphy
o Still Bay technology
o Rock has been heat treated—allows more précised pressure flakes
o A lot of ochre
o Possible that these pieces were hafted (put on long handle)
Klasies River Mouth
o 150-60;000 ya. Homo ergaster
o Two kinds of resources
o Terestrial (Land)- Cape Buffalo, Bush Pig, Eyland (like an antelope, but not very common in environment, but common in remains of whats being eaten)
 Eyland are really dumb, easy for predators
 The cape buffalo and bush pig are really common but incredibly violent and aggressive, very lethal
 Bush pig don’t occur in large groups
 There is a catastrophic mortality profile
 Shows that we might be herd hunting
o Marine Resources
 Shell fish, penguins and seals (lots of the last 2), dolphin, fish, water foul
 Shell fish, penguins and seals are all near the shore
• You don’t need boats to hunt them
 The other resources can sometimes just wash up on shore and you can eat em, yummy
o Quenetira, Israel (Middle pathelolithic, ugh that date sucks)
o A rock w/ 1 smooth face, 1 cobbled face
o Semicircles within rock
o Have modern humans in this part of the world… and with such a bad date, can’t say its Neanderthals
o Occasionally find pierced teeth from carnivores………. Not a whole lot, very rare, not always associated with Neanderthals, don’t know if it’s them or not
Divye Babe
o (60-70000 years ago)
Slovenia A piece of a young cave bear femur (thigh bone)
o It has holes in it
o Found in the same place as Neanderthal tools
o Kindof like a pattern for a flute or recorder
o “Neanderthal Flute???”
o Don’t show any microscopic traits of drilling through bone
o They actually think that holes are from hyenas (fits dental patterns)
o This site isn’t alone, other bones found with holes in it, but this is a animal pattern
Shanidar 4
(most talked about Neanderthal burial ever)
 Adult male, with a huge amount of flower pollen in burial site
 In 1960 they assumed they buried in a bed of flowers
 People went crazy and had books, films, a Smithsonian exhibit
 They then brought in geologists to look at straitgraphy of cave
 There was a hole in cave, a flower bush was growing above
 Same sort of flower was in burial, has always been growing in that environment
 There is pollen, in dirt, in his cavity
 Then they looked at rodent activity digging in cave
 Rodents like to dig in fresh dirt of burial sites
 So they think flower pollen fell on top of it, and then the digging brought the pollen in
Shanidar 3
same point in time as shan 1 (BAD TREATMENT)
 Adult man with arthritic ankle
 Very large nasty fresh hole in ribs, where someone stuck him
 Unlike #1, he didn’t have a chance to heal
 Hole is a cut mark, aka stabbed
• Maybe took his own life
• Ritual sacrifice
• Who knows, maybe he talked to the wrong guy’s woman
Shanidar 1
 Shanidar is a very famous site in s.w. asia, lots of Neanderthals
 Adult male skull with normal Neanderthal life
 Had a serious blow to left side of head
 But injury healed, and he lived after this so the bones head
 Definitely impaired vision, probably blind
 Has withered right arm and ankle… partial paralysis on right side
 He could NOT have fended for himself after this injury, so someone had to care for him
Shanidar 2
 Shanidar 2 was an adult male, who evidently died in a rock fall inside the cave, as his skull and bones were crushed.
 There is evidence that Shanidar 2 was given a ritual send-off: a small pile of stones with some worked stone points (made out of chert) were found on top of his grave. Also, there had been a large fire by the grave, with a concentration of split and broken animal bones nearby, suggesting a funeral ceremony involving consumption of food had been held.
o (southwest asia, isreal) (90-60 kya)
o has wild peas
o Neanderthals gathering these
o Looks like they have a very general diet
o Infants….just dumped
o There is an adult male who was buried
o Grave was too small for him, so he was wedged in
o Looks like they didn’t initially fill it over
o He rotted, then the dirt gets covered
o We know this because if you cover dead body in dirt, the dirt collapses the ribs in
o His ribs are not like that
o He is missing his entire right leg and head
o Head and leg were taken after body was rotted, then he was covered in dirt
o This was done intentionally, but don’t know what meaning
o This makes us wonder about hierarchy, or ritual
o We dunno, but we know that some of dead are buried in business like fashion
Moula Guercy
 Like a dozen people
 This is in a cave, not a cavass like Krapina
? Ardeche, France. 100,000
 Have an idea of locations where things took place in cave
 In area for butchering, animal and hominid
• We notice that animal and people are being butchered in same way (cutting, discarding bone)
• They are being cracked and split for marrow inside
o Can’t really explain this unless it was for cannibalism
 Mad cow disease got that from eating other cows
• Same goes for cannibalism
• Not a good idea to eat members of own species
 Cut marks from a stone tool on someone’s skull
 Neanderthals
 At this place they found like 40 or so individuals.. most with cut marks
• Maybe ritual for removing flesh off bone (what you do when you butcher an animal)… like a burial
 There is usually a way to tell if it is for ritual, or cannibalism, but we can’t tell which
? former yugasolvia 90-60,000 ya)
(Neanderthal site)
o German site
o Find this shaft, like shaonagin spears
o Pretty clear indication we are hunting big animals
La Cotte de St. Brelade
o (130-110) kya, Neanderthals
o Dense with bones
o Mostly mammoth and rhino
o Adults and sub adults
o Skulls are broken open
 Brain matter can help you tan a hide, but also eating it is a good way to stay healthy
o And meat bones have similar cut marks and are stacked
o Faunal analysis- Catastrophic mortality profile—Mass kills, they got the whole group of animals at once
o In modern world those animals like to hang out together, elephants in center, rhinos at edge
 Elephants hear and see well
 Rhinos have good since of smell
 Double protection for babies
o Looks like a systematic group kill of these two animal groups
o Looks like hunting
 Lazaret, France, Neanderthal
• 120,000 years old
• Southwest france
• “Possible Stone Structure”—people who evacavated this site are convinced that stones found are for holding down tent or shelter
Ripceni Izvor
Romania, (indeterminate age), Neanderthals
⬢ Open site, not covered
⬢ Possible wind breaks made from tusks of mammoth (ribs too)
⬢ Pattern of wind breaks falling over does not match how they were found
Russia, neanderthals
⬢ Supposedly a house built from mammoth bones
⬢ On the edge of Russian plains
⬢ This area has layers of years⬦. There is a house on modern levels
⬢ But on Neanderthal level, somewhat circular, with small amount of mammoth skull⬦ not enough skulls
⬢ (modern mainly use mammoth skulls and jaws), small amount ribs for bracing
⬢ Pattern matches living in the center, and throwing waste to the sides, a discard pattern
Gran Dolina
o (southern spain site)
o Might represent failed colonizations
o Europe might have been pretty hard for hominids (climatic instability)
o After .5 mya, lots of sites, lots of evidence, lots of good handaxes (GOOD COLONIZATION)
400,000 ya)
o A lot of bones from horses
o Large throwing spears
o It’s a peat bog, which is good at preserving wood
o Each is a little over 3 meters longs
o Almost certainly hunting in organized groups
o Choukoutien/Zhoukoudian( .5mya)
o Evidence for a lot of erectus grade hominids (40-50 indivudals)
o Better fire evidence
o Aren’t a lot of big animal bones
o (in Georgia)
o Earliest site with good evidence (1.7 mya)
o There is a date that dates 2mya (problem bc that is 200,000 years before first erect grade hominids)
o These datings say we are getting out of Africa and into Georgia pretty soon (100,000 years after first apperiance of erectus)
o Have a more primitive set of characterists
 Smaller cranial (700 cm^3) (closer to homo habilius)
 Heavy brow ridge, pointy cainines
Koobi Fora
o Stone tools, bits of hominids. Large bit of a leg bone of a homo erectus. A heavy growth of weirdness on bone. This is bone growth is only seen with a large amount of Vitamin A in diet. In this environment at this time, the only real source was carnivore livers (lions, hyenas, hunting dogs). There is a chance we are hunting, but it’s still confusing on why there is this growth. There are other sites where there is the probability that erectus is hunting other animals
o Ethiopia
o 1.5-1 mya
o Patches of burned earth, on high enough elevation (700ft above sea level so you don’t get brush fires)
o Best evidence for fire before .5 mya is from outside of Africa=Asia
o Being able to control fire is not the same as starting it.
Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania)
o The most famous early hominoid site, 1 of the richest
o Located in the great rift valley
o They’ve found homo habilis, paranthropus
o Finds- (leakey family site)
o Twiggy, Cindy, George
o Tools- Earliest type of tools found that man have made
o Found animal bones w/ cut marks from stone tools
o AT BOTH (KBS, HAS)—Stone is coming from several kilometers away
o This implies strategy and kick ass walkin.
o KBS-1.9mya .. Have balsat and other volcanic rock made into flakes
o HAS (Hippo Artifact Site)-1.9 mya- Same things, but also bones from hippo
(Hippo Artifact Site)-1.9 mya- Same things, but also bones from hippo
 Stone tools
 Most of a Hippo
 Cuts were found in the hind limbs and the pattern indicates hunting by a hominid or a primary scavenger
 Elephant, Hippo-Packaderms---they have thick skin
• If they die, scavengers don’t go in after wards, they wait for skin to fall off
• Teeth of predators doesn’t really get in… but tools get in really easily
(other best site for afarensis), Ethiopia
o Lucy was 3.6 mya
o Lucy (Australopithecus afarensis)
 Bipedal
 Tiny brain
 Two feet then big head 3.8-4 mya
o Not only afarensis
o Found 4  first family
o 1977- Mary Leakey in Laetoli, (one of best sites of afarensis), Tanzania,
o Found footprints from 3.8-3.5 mya
o Potassium argon dating
o 2 sets of prints (some think it was 3 people, mother and father with babying being held)
o How is it fossilized?
o Sada⬦ volcano erupted leaving a layer of ash
o It rains making wet ash
o Walked through wet ash
o Dried and more ash deposited
Kada Gona
Ethiopia, tools date 2.5-2.6 mya
o Tools are found in fine grain sediment (if gravity broke it sediment would be rough)
o Found in a limited spread
o Very dense
o Have flakes that fit onto other pieces
o Suggested to be a site where africanus was hunting
o Found tools dart claimed to be weapons
o Theorized they were hunters
o some of the bones here show cut marks ( only hominids do this)
o Some bones also have teeth marks under cut marks…. Perhaps we were scavaging
o Leopard Lunch
 During the time of Africanus it wasn’t a cave
 There was a limestone fissure in which trees like to grow due to the water supply.
 Leave carcuses in tree to keep away from the lion however the leopards could climb the trees
 The fissure tipped sideways
south africa
Russia, o Long House, rectangular
o Very long, several families inside it
o Biggest one has 10 hearths in it
o From ethicnographic things, you have a change in societal class system
o In round houses there is spread fire warmth equally
o Northern Province, South Africa
o Consist of bits of africanus including bashed in skulls, horrible stratigraphy, animal bones
o Everything came out through blasting with dynamite
o Dart thought Africanus was violent and made weapons
o Believed one group would raid and bash another group
reconstruction of the human past on the basis of material remains
o study of human diversity and change in all times and all places
o Biological
o Cultural and social
o Linguistic
o Environmental
o Archeology
o item which owes any of its physical characteristics to human activity which includes location
o a place where ancient/past human activity occurred
o an item which has the characteristics of an artifact but its not portable (ie. Storage pit, holes from poles, trash pits miben)
solid inorganic and organic particles accumulated and precipitated by natural or human processes (Waters 1992)
o Layers of sediment that make up the site
o Earthquakes, rodents, mess up stratigraphy
o Principle of Superposition
 The stuff on top is younger than the stuff below
o environmental conditions during prehistoric times
o Where we get pale climatic data?
 Pollen, animal bones, tree rings, soil conditions/composition, speleotherms, ice core, sea core, oxygen isotopes (wiggle matching)
Relative Dating
o “”A relational chronology of events (A is older than B).”””””
o Ranking events in terms of their age and their relation to others
Absolute Dating
o A refined chronology of events based upon calendrical dates (e.g. event A occurred in the 12th century BC, today is DATE)
o Obtaining a true calendrical date using a test or technique
What are the benefits of bipedalism?
To see over things, carry things, To eat things, To stay cool, To walk long distances, To get a mate??
Bipedalism-To see over things?
 Need to adapt to savanna (not a lot of trees)
 Can’t swing from branch to branch- brachiation
 In savannas the trees are far apart and the grass is tall
 Beneficial to see over and above the tall grass
 Its colder, and when it gets colder tend to get more grass
 Became an adaptation wrong theory for became bipedal before area became grassland
 Problem: forest didn’t really give way to savann until 3.3 mya by then we’ve been bipedal for at least 55 kya
Biped-To carry things
 Problem of absence of information for there is no information of them needing to carry things on two feet; capable of doing so on four feet
Biped- To eat things
 Chimps use upright position to eat either hanging by one arm or standing on two feet
 Early bipedal hominids had shoulders similar to hang
 Developed a habit of eating upright
 Chimps didn’t develop the habit, so it still doesn’t really account for new way of getting around
Biped- TO stay cool
 A vertical posture exposes less of the body surface to the sun and helps to prevent overheating
 If moving into a savanna environment, beneficial especially if moving around a lot in which animals did
 Problem: again chimps, baboons and all other quadrupeds do fine on all fours so it still doesn’t explain why we become bipedal
Bipedal- Speed?
 Can move quicker on fours
 Running on two is no more efficient possibly less efficient
Bipedal-To walk long distances
 Walking is much more energy efficient on two legs
 However, still trees therefore brachiating is still the most efficient
Precision Grip- VS Power grip
 Compared to other animals, humans have week hands
 Chimps have power grip
 Human have longer, thinner, more delicate structure
 Human have precision grip- helps to write pick out things
Savanna timing again; shouldn’t matter until 3.3 mya and we have become bipedal long before then
Bipedal-To get a mate
 Pet theory (owen love joy)- bipedalism is linked to sexuality
 In a pair bond, man is the provider
 Supported by that males are bigger than women
 Can carry more stuff, stronger, more energy
 If he is provider in pair bond, he provides for female and offspring he has to range farther for food and being bipedal becomes more efficient
 Problems1: same problems as the “to carry things theory”
 Problem 2: a little more complicated…(when we look at primates out there we don’t see them in pair bonds)
o First true retouched tool technology
o Flake tool industry
o Standardized types
o Multiple types
o Side scrapers, levallois point, double scraper, transverse scraper
o Have 22 defined types of tools
o Explanations for tool type variability in the Mousterian
 Theory 1: Variability is cultural
• Francsa bord (can’t spell his name) theory
• French tools dif than Italians, than Spanish, and germans. One type is more common in one area than area
• Culture
 Theory 2: Variability is functional
• Lewis binford’s theory
 More tools at this place bc is a butchering site, and then site is for chopping wood, and so on
Theory 1---Tested by statistics and not really significant
Theory 2--- You can look at tools microscopically and see what patterns of wear they had (butchering, stone) And this didn’t separate them… they used all tools for everything
So both theories aren’t the whole story, they don’t know really why multiple tools
o Prepared core technique
o There is a lot of preparation of core
o Get river type stone, small flakes around sides
o Turn on end and whack it to take off one flake
o THis allows a lot more sharp edges
o But can only do this on really good raw material
o Takes a long time to exhaust (use it all up and you’ll have to get a new one)
o But Neanderthals would rather use local tools than walk far
o 60-90 percent of rock are within 5 km
o more planning in tool and better made
⬢ Dates back to about 2.5 mya at Gona
⬢ Named after Olduvai Gorge in T
⬢ Originally defined as series of specifically shaped, sharpened rocks that served as chopping does
⬢ Basically the core and flake tools where the core struck on the striking platform to make flakes
o Handaxe
o Earliest and simplest handaxes have been found in Africa and about 1.4 mya
o Handaxes are symmetrical, finely flaked and often aesthetically exquisite
o Dozens of flakes are removed from core
o Produces about 4x more cutting edge than an oldowan chopper
Types of scavengers
• Secondary-Scavenger that arrives after primary
• Primary- They arrive right away after animal was killed… Sometimes they are fierce enough to take animal before killer gets it… Hyenas takin a lion’s kill in a pack
Order of carcass disarticulation
⬢ Viscera (guts)-easiest to get
⬢ Hind limbs-most mea
⬢ Fore limb
⬢ Axial skeleton-ribs and spine, above belly, below skull
⬢ Head, marrow bones-high in fat and protein
Sexual Dimorphism
o Condition of one gender of a species being morphologically very different from each other
o Often in size, whose bigger?? In early hominids the males are
o High degree- large differences
o Afarensis is the only one we have a good idea of what the sexual dimorphism was
o The females were considerably smaller (ie Lucy)
Social behavior resulting from sexual dimorphism?
o Short term monogamy (if it existed)
o Gender hierarchy (among males and females separately)
o Tightly structured social group, but females stay with females and males stay with males except when moving or mating
o Kin ties are important, and strongest bond not between mates but between mother and child and between siblings of the same gender
Controlled fire effects?
o Cooking: meat=less chewing, preserved longer,
o plants=lets chewing, processes out toxins
o light: good in seasonal environ with shorter days
o warmth: good in higher latitudes and altitudes
o protection: good for driving carnivores from a kill or campsite
Chimp tool use
 Tools made by chimps are organic
 Tools are used by chimps for “gathering”
 Most productive tool-use is by females
Complex behavior resulting from tool use
 Stone is carried, some times from far away
 Use of stone is sometimes ad hoc
 Also implies hominids make things in advance… If so
 What does it mean to find animal bones and stone artifacts together?
Behavior of neanderthals
 Neanderthals are homebodies!
 Eating what’s readily available & easy
 Making tools from what’s readily available
 Little contact w/ other groups seems likely
Neanderthal site descriptions
 Always messy (trash wasn’t thrown out for years at a time)
 Caves
 Hearths (often multiple) (maybe social heiarchy, mommy/daddy you and I, or best hunters get best fire, but we dunno)
 Lots of people
 Not good evidence for Neanderthals wearing hides, processing leather
 No evidence for Neanderthals domesticating dogs
Why did neanderthals appear in europe?
 Appear in Europe during very cold glacial period
 Very cold forested, environment
 Lots of big, cold weather herd animals: aurochs (cold weather cattle), reindeer, mammoth, etc
 They seem to be the cold weather hominid
What killed off the Neanderthals (BAD THEORIES)
⬢ Moderns killed them
⬢ They kill each other
What killed off the Neanderthals (possible, and good theories)
 Possible but currently untestable theory:
• Died from new disease
• Outcompeted by moderns
• BECAUSE moderns have…
o Clothes
o Better fire
o Houses
o Better tools.. more sophisticated
 With modern humans lots and lots of standardized tool types
 Over a hundred
o Blade based technology
o (smaller) Support more people on same amount of food
 Europe is also starting to warm up
 So all the big animals too are disappearing or shrinkin
Middle Stone Age
(200kya-40kya) Mousterian tools and Neanderthals
Characteristics of Neanderthal Burials?
 Generally simple things
 Shallow
 Almost all are single
• One site is female and small child
 Most are buried tightly flexed (Curled up)
• Bodies are either buried flex or extended
o Flex=less work=smaller hole
 Maybe more men than women
 Grave good are either extremely rare or non-existent
 More often than not they did not bury dead
 Their bones are often just mixed in with animals
 We bury bodies 4 two reasons
• Hygienic
o Smell, decay, cosmetic
• Recognition of death
 Around 60-65 known burial sites
• All in cave or rock shelter
• Possible they buried dead in cave, and they left cave
Upper Paleolithic burials
o Single and Multiple Burials
o All buried extended (except 4 1 mass grave where they all were dumped)
o Grave goods (some nicer than others)
o Deep, prepared graves
o This IS SOME symbolic behavior goin on (ritual involved)
o Site that may have bits of Ochre, Tata Hungary (stage 5 glacial)
 Top part of ammoth molar
o Iron based mineral used for paint
o Occurs naturally in red, black and yellow
o If you heat it you can get various shades of gray and green, or deeper brown
o Neanderthal sites have quantities of ochre
 Have red ochre and black ochre (the natural colors)
 They did not heat it to get other colors
 Some pieces have been rubbed or scraped, but no paintings
 But they could be painting on perishable materials (animal skin, wood, we wouldn’t know b/c doesn’t preserve)
 Could be curing hides
 SHE thinks they were curing hides more than book or other people think
Blade Techology
Modern technology...
o (2x long as it is thickn as a flake)
o Have microblades
o Small tiny little blades (like 2 cm long, mm wide)
o Can make saws with these types of things
Bone technology (bone antler, ivory)
o Bone is stronger than wood
o Less fragile than stone
o Can be shaped by grinding and polishing, so can make almost any shape out of it.
o But it takes much time, much investment long before use
o Made barbed tools
o Composite tools
 Harpoon that detaches from spear
Neanderthal Art
 Claimed artwork is rare
 Best “Neanderthal” art-like stuff comes from caves with later human occupation
 In cave straitigraphy the layers can end up moving and changing layers, caves are very complicated
 Others are just plain weird
Upper Paleolithic Art Techniques
⬢ Stenciling
⬢ Painting
⬢ Engraving
⬢ low-relief carving/sculpture
⬢ carving/sculpture in the round
⬢ moldeling in the round (3d sculpture)
⬢ occasionally we see more than 1 technique to make a piece of art
3 main focuses of Upper Paleolithic Art
⬢ Animals (large herbivores, bison, almost no birds or fish) Seem to special
⬢ Humans (limited to moble art)
⬢ Other stuff (geometric signs, symbols)
 Shells (also some stone) transported >100 miles = very wide social networks. Networking important for survival
 Moderns made personal ornaments from shell. Sense of self? Complex social life?
 Long distance movement; shells would be very expensive”, so probably not everyone had them
 Have and have not people
Multi-regional Theory
o Old Multi-Regional Model:
 Erectus colonized the Old World. Everybody interbred and evolved into sapiens
o Current Multi-Regional Model:
 Erectus colonized the Old World. Sapiens evolved in Africa, recolonized the rest of the Old World, interbreeding with some, but not all.
Out of Africa Theory
o Replacement Model/ Out-of Africa:
o Erectus colonized the old world, sapiens evolved in Africa, recolonized the rest of the Old World with little/ no interbreeding.
o The colonization of Asia and Europe by Erectus-grade hominids (refer to out of Africa 1)
o Through straits of gilbratar
o Africa to yemen through Arabia and into asia
o Through Africa into cyanide desert and into asia (only dry route)
o Mostly art, some of the clay has been fired
Clothing of Moderns
o Eyed needles
o Bones from fur-bearing animals
o Stone tools for hide-scraping
o Absolute evidence for hide-scraping
o Figurines of people dressed clothing
o Impressions of weaving on baked clay
Sewing at Sungir
o 3 burials here
o With lots of ivory beads
o From the 3 burials, 8,000 ivory beads
o They were sewn onto clothing from patterns of laying on person
Mobilary Art
o Portable art, such as sculptures, figurines, ON D2L
Parietal art
o Non-portable art on cave walls and mountainsides
o (trash left behind after making stone tools)
What are the two implacations of MRCA date comparing chimps to humans?
⬢ We are not related to Eurasian Homo Erectus.
⬢ Regional differences in Homo erectus have nothing to do with us
Did we interbred with neanderthals?
Hell no
Old Man of La Chappelle
(Evidence for good treatment of Neanderthals for eachother)
o “Old man of La Chappelle”
o One of the first Neanderthal skeletons found
o He is missing a lot of teeth and molars, badly healed broken arm
o Bad arthritis in hip and spine (it leaves marks on bones and we see it)
o Probably in a lot of pain, low mobility, probably about 45 (old for a Neanderthal)
o Both of Shanidar and La Chappelle we’re older adult men
o Elder’shave value—knowledge
o We care about treatment b/c it shows social bonds
Differences of Humans and Chimps
o splits off the tree 5-7 mya
o Live in social groups
o Omnivores
o Use tools
o Problem solve
o Bipedal
Human v. Chimp
o Human habitually are bipedal, chimps prefer quadruped
o Humans have a large brain in proportion to their body
o Chimps make tools from twigs and leaves and do not have developed tool techniques
o Chimps do not curate or collect their tools
What are the THREE characteristics of Humans
o Bipedalism
o Large brain
What is a Atlatl?
o Spear thrower
o Piece of hold that holds spear
o Takes skill, but you kick ass once you learn it
Evidence for Bows and Arrows?
o not a lot of direct evidence
o 2-3 reports of bow and arrows that were poorly documented
o 23ka—have points that are arrowheads
• They are different than spear points
• Corners or barbs
• Smaller
o no direct nets
o but we have impressions
o The knots from the impressions are the knots that people have been using for a long long time
o However this is in central Europe where there are not a lot of fish
o And not a lot of fish bones there
o Maybe catching smaller animals?
o Bunny bones at the site
o Effective way to catch rabbits, good amount of meat for size, good fur, warm and soft, delicate bones that can be used
What is something important about 1.8 mya?
Anthropologists Henry Bunn and Ellen Kroll analyzed stone flakes and bones from the 1.8 mya FLK site in Olduvai Gorge and found substantial evidence for the reliance on meat; bones representing the meatiest parts of animals bore ample evidence of stone tool cut marks
What else is kick as about 1.8mya?
It's the beggining of the pleistocene... When erectus left africa/ beggining of homo erectus (Emergence of more modern man from africa?)
The Pleistocene also saw the evolution and expansion of our own species, Homo sapiens, and by the close of the Pleistocene, humans had spread through most of the world.
The current epoch... dates back .01 mya
period that extends from the present back about 10,000 radiocarbon years.
Lower Stone Age
( 250,000,000mya-200kya) up to hand axes and Homo erectus
Upper Stone Age
(40 kya –now) moderns
Hominid order
A. afarensis, A. africanus, Proanthropus, H. habilis, H. erectus, H. neanderthalus, H. sapiens
What were the tool types for H. Habilis, H. Erectus, H. Neanderthals, H. Sapiens
oldowan (flakes, Achulean hand axes (flakes on bloth sides), Mousterian and Levallouis (core technology), Blades(twice as long), compound bone tools

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