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Earth Science Topic 12


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is the outer core solid liquid or gas?
spot on the surface above the point in the ground of the earthquake
the point under teh ground where the earthquake occurs
upper portion of the lithosphere
orginial horizontality
sedimentary rocks and some extrusive igneous rocks form in horizontal layers parallel to earths surface
crack in a mass of rock along which there has been displacement, shifting, or movement of the rock layers on each side of the crack
what principle supports the conclusion that layers have undergone extensive movement since deposition?
deposited in horizontal layers
what do tilted rock layers suggest?
crustal movement occurred sometime after the sediments were deposited
land uplift
land has been raised up to its present position
what does it suggest when marine rocks are found in sedimentary rock hundreds or thousands of meters above sea level?
the land has been uplifted
what are most earthquakes caused by?
movement along faults
seismic waves
earthquake waves that give off potential energy
instrument that shows how earth sjhakes from seismic waves
recording of the amplitudes of the wave that represent earths shakings
what are the 3 categories of seismic waves
p-waves, s-waves, and surface waves
what way do the particles that p-waves travel through vibrate?
in the direction of the waves
what is slower s or p waves
what way do the particles vibrate when s waves travel through them
at right angles
what reaches a seismograph first?
how does velocity of waves change?
more dense, the greater velocity of waves
what can pwaves pass through
solids, liquids, and gases
what can swaves pass through
only solids
time interval vs. distance from epicenter
bigger the time interval, the farther the distance to the epicenter
damage vs. closeness to epicenter
the closer to the epicenter, the greater the damage
how can a reasonable earthquake prediciton be made?
by knowing the earthquakes history of a specific zone
5 waays to prepare for earthquakes
1. radios
2. fragile tems on floor
3. keep cabinets locked
4. extra food, batteries
5. practice drills
large wavelength oceanwave produced by disruption of the ocean floor
what can the disruption be from?
faulting associated with an earthquake, colvani eruptions, or rapid landslide type of mass movement
mountain composed of extrusive igneous rocks
how can u predict a volcano eruption?
satellites measure infrared energy froom the upper atmosphere and report on the increasing heat from rising magma. when the magma rises, a chicken is coming
ring of fire
regions surrounding the pacific ocean that contain a majority of these related events and features: earthquakes, uplifting, sinking, volcanic eruptions; ocean trenches, island arches, mid-oceans irdges
mid-ocean ridge
moutain ranges in ocean areas
where do most earthquakes originate?
aloing specific belts within the crust
where are volcanoes mainly located?
zones of crustal activity
where is teh shadow zone from?>
102-143 debgrees
in which parts of earths interior would melted or partially melted material be found?
asthenosphere and outer core
the composition of some meteorites supports the inference that earths core is composed of
iron and nickel
what is the oceanic crust made of?
mostly basalt
what is the continental crust mostly made of?
how does thickness and density of the continental crust compare to that of the oceanic crust?
the continental crust is thicker and less dense than the oceanic crust
what is the san andreas fault system ?
an example of a transform plate boundary between north american and pacific plates
divergent boundary
plates move apart and magma rises from below to fill the separation, resulting in igneous intrustions and extrusions.
convergent plate boundary
when two plates collide
3 types of convergent boundaries
1. both plates w/ oceanic crust on top
2. both plates w/ continental crust on top
3. one with cont. one with oc.
transform plate boundary
when two plates collide by sliding past each other
what is the most accepted theory of how plates move?
mantle convection currents drag or push the plates apart at places hwere plates diverge
according to the theory of plate tectonics, the distance between two continents on opposide sides of a mid-oceanic ridge will generally
what feature is commonly formed at a plate boundary where oceanic crust converges with continental crust?
an oceanic trench
what are two pieces of evidence that prove africa and south america were one part of the same large continent?
1. matched up minerals
2. matched up fossils
evidence of subduction exists at the boundary between the __plates
indian, australian, and antarctic plates
what do igenous materials found along mid-ocean ridges that contain magnetic particles show?
the reversal of magnectic orientation
what is this evidence of?
that earths magnetic poles have exchanged their positions

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