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What are 7 components of equine nutrition?
Components of equine nutrition are water, salt and minerals, roughage, concentrates and grains, supplements, vitamins, and special minerals.
What are the water needs of equines?
Equines require 1 gallon of water per 100 pounds of body weight daily, with more needed during lactation and hot water, and with a decreased need during cooler weather.
What are the salt and minerals need of equines?
Equines require salt and minerals in the form of commercially prepared blocks without urea which burns their kidneys.
What are roughage requirements for equines?
Equines require 1 1/2 pounds of roughage per 100 pounds of body weight daily, with hay and pasture grass providing the major bulk of diet, usually recommended for one horse per 2 acres for pasture.
What are 3 forms of roughage for equines?
Roughage comes in baled, cubed/pelleted, and chopped forms.
What is the advantage of baled roughage?
Baled roughage is best for teeth and it takes a longer time to eat because it requires more chewing.
What is the disadvantage to baled roughage?
Baled roughage requires a large amount of storage and produces more waste.
What is the advantage to cubed/pelleted roughage?
Cubed/pelleted roughage needs less room for storage and produces less waste.
What is the disadvantage to cubed/pellet roughage?
Cubed/pelleted roughage can cause choking, as well as colic due to increased water intake.
What is the advantage to using chopped roughage?
Chopped roughage is very palatable, slightly cooked, and is good for horses with few teeth.
What is the disadvantage to using chopped roughage?
Chopped roughage has a high cost.
What is the concentrate/grain requirement for equines?
Equines should receive concentrates/grains in the form of corn, barley, and oats, and kernels need to be broken down in some fashion for digestion.
What are 6 supplements given to equines?
Supplements given to equines are: calf manna, soybean meal, corn oil, wheat bran, rice bean, and beet pulp.
How is calf manna used as a supplement?
Calf manna is a calf milk replacer and protein source.
How is soybean meal used as a supplement?
Soybean meal is a protein source.
How is corn oil used as a supplement?
Corn oil is given in small amounts to aid in weight gain and shiny coat.
What is the purpose of using wheat bran as a supplement?
Wheat bran is a sourced of roughage.
What is the purpose of using rice bean as a supplement?
Rice ban is a source of fat.
What is the purpose of using beet pulp as a supplement?
Beet pulp is used as a supplement to aid weight gain and as a roughage source.
What is the vitamin requirement of horses?
Vitamins should only be given to young, sick, geriatric, or heavily trained horses.
What special minerals should be provided to horses?
Calcium and phosphorous should be given to lactating mares using bone meal.
What are 7 life stages to consider in determining feeding requirements?
Life stage feeding is based on maintenance/1st 8 months of gestation, physical activity, broodmare, lactations, foal, weanling, and yearling.
What are life stage feeding requirements for maintenance/1st 8 months of gestation?
For maintenance/1st 8 months of gestation, feed 1 1/2 pounds of roughage per 100 pounds of body weight daily, and 1/2 pound of grain per 100 pounds of body weight daily if roughage is poor quality, and give free choice to salt and mineral blocks.
How is proper feeding determined with physical activity in equines?
Proper feeding of equines engaged in physical activity is determined by calculating maintenance needs plus activity needs and supplementing with grain.
How much grain is required for an equine with light physical activity?
An equine engaged in light physical activity requires 1/2 to 1 1/2 pounds of grain per hour of work.
How much grain does an equine require engaged in moderate physical activity?
An equine engaged in moderate physical activity requires 2 to 3 pounds of grain per hour of work.
How much grain does an equine require that is engaged in heavy physical activity?
An equine engaged in heavy physical activity requires 4 pounds of grain per hour of work.
How are lifestage feeding requirements computed for broodmares?
The feeding requirements for a broodmare are based on maintenance levels plus additional needs that need to be met during the last 3 months of gestation.
What are the feeding requirements for a broodmare?
A broodmare requires .5 to .8 pounds of grain per 100 pounds of body weight, and 1% of diet needs to be made up of bonemeal.
What are the life stage feeding requirements of equines while lactating?
Lactating equines require 3 pounds of roughage and grain per 100 pounds of body weight with grain level not exceeding that of roughage, free choice of salt and mineral blocks, and 1% of diet being bonemeal.
What are the life stage feeding requirements of foals?
Foals can get sufficient nutrition from dam's milk for 2 to 3 months, at which point creep feeding should be begun with .5 to .75 pounds per 100 pounds of body weight daily, and free choice of salt and mineral block.
What are the life stage feeding requirements of a weanling?
Weanlings require 1 to 1 1/2 pounds of grain daily per 100 pounds of weight, as well as free choice of roughage and salt and mineral blocks.
What are the life stage feeding requirements for a yearling?
Yearlings require 1 to 1 1/2 pounds of grain per 100 pounds of body weight, as well as free choice of roughage and free choice of salt and mineral blocks.
What are 5 common plants that are toxic to equines?
Plants that are toxic to equines include oleander, groundsel, fiddleneck, yellow starylsil, and poisonous hemlock.
What are the characteristics of oleander?
Oleander can be fatal to a 100 pound horse in an amount as small as one handful, and the entire plant is toxic.
What are the characteristics of groundsel?
Groundsel comes up in spring around garden edges, is often found in first cutting of hay, and causes serious liver damage.
What are the characteristics of fiddleneck?
Fiddleneck comes up with spring rain on roadsides, and it is not uncommon to find it in first hay cutting.
What are the characteristics of yellow starlysil?
Yellow starlysil comes up in spring after rain, is found in very dry ground, when fully mature is 4 to 5 feet tall, is only toxic to horses, would be poisonous to horse only if 600 pounds were ingested, and it liquefies brain.
What are the characteristics of poisonous hemlock?
Poisonous hemlock looks like carrot tops or a dill plant with purple blotches on stem, and only 2 or 3 mouthfuls will kill a horse.
What questions need to be asked of client who is presenting a laceration emergency?
Client should be asked how much is animal bleeding and what color is the blood.
What are steps taken to remedy an emergency laceration situation?
Owner should try to stop bleeding by putting direct pressure on area, should only use water soluble ointments, seek veterinary help if bleeding is uncontrollable, clean and bandage after bleeding is stopped, and keep wound clean and dry.
How is proud flesh or granulation tissue treated?
Proud flesh or granulation tissue is treated by removing it with a scalpel or by applying powders that will remove the flesh or tissue.
What are first aid kit items needed for equine emergencies?
First aid kit items needed are nitrofurisin, betadine, neosporin, telfapads, rolled gauge, and vet wrap.
What are 8 of the equine issues requiring emergency attention?
Equine issues requiring emergency attention are: fractures, colic, reproductive problems, lameness, ocular issues, colds, choking, and abscesses.
How should fractures be treated?
Fractures of the long bones can most often be repaired and are diagnosed with x-rays, joints should be stablized above and below break, and the smallest horse trailer available should be used for transportation.
What are the clinical signs of colic?
Colic presents with acute abdominal pain, fever, anorexia, and the animal will lie down, won't defecate for over 3 hours, will bite at flanks and thrash and sweat, and male horses will extend penis.
What are the 3 general causes of colic?
General causes of colic include environmental, parasites, and obstructive.
What environmental factors can cause colic?
Environmental factors that can cause colic are feed and water changes, weather changes, and poor feed.
What are 5 types of obstructive colics?
Obstructive colics include: impaction, sand/dirt colic, stones, twisted intestine, and meconium.
Which obstructive colic will require euthanasia if surgery is not performed?
Twisted intestine colic requires euthanasia if surgery is not performed.
What is basic care for colic?
Basic care for colic includes attempting to keep horse up and moving and not rolling around on ground, and putting the animal on pain medications and stool softeners.
What is advanced care for colic?
Advanced care for colic requires constant monitoring, IV fluids, x-ray or ultrasound, surgery, and possibly euthanasia.
What are common reproductive problems in the equine?
Labor needs to occur in 10 to 12 minutes after water is broken or foal can be lost, foal needs to be up and nursing within 2 hours, and placenta needs to be passed in 3 hours to avoid occurrence of infection, laminitis, and colic.
What are 4 common causes of lameness in equines?
Lameness can occur in equines due to foot abscess, strains/sprains, arthritis, and laminitis/founder.
How are foot abscesses treated?
Foot abscesses are treated by identifying area of injury, removing debris, soaking in iodine and warm water to draw abscess out, followed with treatment by farrier and vet to complete healing.
How are strains/sprains treated?
Treatment of strains/sprains includes cold compresses for 1st 24 hours, followed by heat application, and medicating with nsaids and antiinflammatory drugs.
How is arthritis treated?
Arthritis is treated by nsaids and supplements that aid in joint health.
What are causes of arthritis in equines?
Arthritis is caused by poor conformation and geriatric lifestages.
What are the characteristics of laminitis/founder?
Laminitis/founder is a metabolic issue, most often affecting the front feet, in which toxins in body cause histamine release and vasoconstriction with causes swelling, death to tissue, and rotation of coffin bone.
What are possibloe causes of laminitis?
Laminitis may be caused by excessive green grass consumption, excessive grain consumption, retained placenta, colic, high fevers, and dehydration.
What is the treatment for laminitis?
Laminitis is treated with charcoal or mineral oil to move food thru animal, application of cold compresses, soft footing in housing, vasodilation medication and nsaids, and treatment from farrier.
What are 5 common types of ocular issues in equines?
Ocular issues include ulcers, foreign objects, tumors, uveitis, and plugged nasolacrimal ducts.
What is the most commonly seen ocular issue?
The most commonly seen ocular issue is a corneal laceration.
What are the clinical signs of ocular issues?
Ocular issues typically present with swollen reddened eyes, excessive tear formation, squinting, blinking, and excessive rubbing.
What is a tumor that affects the eye?
Squamous cell carcinoma affects the eye.
What is another name for the condition uveitis?
Uveitis is also called moon blindness.
What are the results if treatment is not administered for moon blindness?
Lack of treatment of moon blindness will cause eyeball to shrink causing blindness.
In which ocular issue does the eye appear to be normal when the animal is at rest?
Usually uveitis is only detected when the equine is active.
What are the characteristics of plugged nasolacrimal ducts?
Ducts get plugged by dust and mucus causing tears to run down face and is most often seen in summer, which can be complicated by flies.
What is the treatment for plugged nasolacrimal ducts?
Plugged nasolacrimal ducts need to be flushed with a mixture of 1 teaspoon saline in 1 pint of warm water, application of antibiotic ointment, and hot compresses.
What are the clinical signs for colds in equines?
Colds in equines present with snotty nose, cough, anorexia, and elevated body temperature.
What are the clinical signs of choke in an equine?
Choke clinical signs include green discharge from nose, distress, and extension of head and neck.
How is choke treated in equines?
Choke is treated by first attempting to relax patient, removing food and water to avoid further compaction, and elimination of obstruction in throat.
What are 2 health risks in equines with choke?
Equines with choke may develop aspiration pneumonia and stricture.
What is stricture?
Stricture is a result of scar tissue which narrows throat passage due to an obstruction in the throat.
What are 2 common types of abscesses?
Common abscesses are strangles and pigeon fever.
What are the characteristics of strangles?
Strangles results in abscesses mostly located on head and neck and is highly contagious.
What are the clinical signs of pigeon fever?
Pigeon fever presents with abscesses over entire body with a higher concentration on chest and inguinal areas.
What is another name for pigeon fever?
Pigeon fever is also called pseudotuberculosis.
What is the treatment for abscesses?
Abscesses are lanced, drained, and cultured, followed by application of hot compresses, and the administration of nsaids and antibiotics.
What are 4 diseases in equines requiring vaccination?
Diseases in equines requiring vaccination are tetanus, sleeping sickness, influenza, and snots.
What is another name for tetanus?
Tetanus is also called lockjaw.
What is the cause of tetanus?
Tetanus is causes from chlostrydia tetani which is a bacteria from the ground causing neurological issues, and results in 99% fatality.
How much time is requires for an equine to build immunity to lockjaw/tetanus after vaccination?
Immunity to lockjaw/tetanus is achieved in 14 days for equines.
For which diseases is the vaccination schedule for foals is at 5, 6, and 9 months, as well as yearly boosters?
Encephalomyelitis and tetanus require a vaccination schedule for foals at 5, 6, and 9 months, as well as yearly boosters.
What is the purpose of tetanus antitoxin?
Tetanus antitoxin provides immediate protection lasting 1 month, and is generally used in unvaccinated animals that have sustained an injury.
What is another name for encephalomyelitis?
Encephalomyelitis is also called sleeping sickness.
What are the 3 types of encephalomyelitis?
The 3 types of sleeping sickness include eastern, western, and venezuelan strains.
How is sleeping sickness caused?
Sleeping sickness is caused by a vector, which is a living thing that spreads disease such as a mosquito.
What are the clinical signs of sleeping sickness?
Clinical signs of encephalomyelitis are depression, fever, wandering aimlessly, and head pressing in the initial stages.
What are the clinical signs of the end stages of encephalomyelitis?
The end stages of sleeping sickness are a downed animal and uncontrollable convulsions.
What is the cause of influenza in equines?
Influenza is a respiratory disease caused by myxovirus occuring in warm summer months, and is more prevalent in highly exposed horses.
What are the 2 strains of rhinopneumonitis?
The 2 strains of snots are EHV4 and EHV1.
What is the composition of 3 way vaccine for equines?
3 way vaccine is composed of tetanus, and eastern and western encephalomyelitis.
What are the components of the 5 way vaccine for equines?
5 way vaccine includes tetanus, eastern and western and venezuelan encephalomyelitis, and influenza.
What are 5 other vaccines given depending on the geographic location?
Other vaccines include rabies, stranges, equine viral enteritis, potomac horse fever, and west nile virus.
What is the deworming schedule for equines?
Equines in crowded conditions should be dewormed 6 times a year, in less crowded situations 4 times a year, and foals should be dewormed at 2 months of age and then 6 times a year.
What are 3 important components of ruminant nutrition?
Important components of ruminant nutrition are energy, protein, and vitamins/minerals.
How is energy provided to ruminants through nutrients?
A good quality pasture is adequate for maintenance and 1st 2/3 of gestation, cellulose in pasture grass is best source of energy, and silage provides good source of energy for maintenance and last 1/3 of gestation.
What are sources of protein?
Ruminants can synthesize most of their own amino acids and some non-protein nitrogens such as urea can be supplemented and converted into amino acids.
What are 3 important minerals for ruminants?
Important minerals for ruminants are calcium, phosphorous, and magnesium.
What are sources of calcium for bovines?
Bovines can get calcium from eating grass hay and legumes.
What source is used for providing bovines with phosphorous?
Phosphorous is provided sufficiently in green pasture, and is also found in grains.
Which vitamin deficiency is common in spring?
Vitamin A is a common deficiency in spring.
What are the 3 life stage feeding cycles for mature cows?
The life stage feeding cycles for mature cows are maintenance, gestation, and lactation.
What should be fed to mature cows requiring a maintenance life stage feeding?
Mature cows requiring a maintenance life stage feeding should be provided good quality pasture.
What are the life stage feeding requirements for gestation?
Gestation life stage feeding requires good quality pasture for the first 2/3 of period, and supplemented with hay or silage for the last 1/3.
Why is it recommended that bovine births are planned around spring?
Because lactation is such a nutritionally demanding period, it is recommended to plan birthings around spring because grass is the best nutrient.
What is life stage feeding for preweaned calves?
Preweaned calves are usually adequately fed using their mother's milk.
What are the life stage feeding requirements of a calf at post weaning?
A post weaned calf requires supplements of corn or grain silage, as roughage will not provide adequate nutrition.
What are 7 common bovine emergencies?
Common bovine emergency include bloat, grain overload, diarrhea, hardware disease, johhnes disease, dystocia, and prolapses.
What is bloat?
Bloat is ruminal distension, usually in caudal left quadrant.
What are the 3 types of bloat?
The 3 types of bloat are overload, frothy, and gassy bloat.
What is the cause of overload bloat?
Overload bloat is caused by overeating grass or grain.
What is the cause of frothy bloat?
Frothy bloat is caused by eating sweet clover or excesses of alfalfa.
What is the cause of gassy bloat?
Gassy bloat is caused by choking and swallowing air.
What is the treatment for bloat?
Bloat cases are treated by keeping animal up and moving, passing tube down throat and passing mineral oil, puncturing rumen with trochar, and if severe, ruminotomy.
What is the cause of grain overload?
Grain overload occurs when too many acidic substances are ingested causing pH of rumen to change.
What is the normal and overload pH level of rumen as it pertains to grain overload?
The normal pH of rumen is 8.0, and in overload is 5.0.
What is the treatment for grain overload?
Treatment for grain overload is by using mineral oil to ingrease grain movement, baking soda to increase body and g.i. pH levels, charcoal to absorb, corticosteroids, and surgery if animal is of value.
What is the usual cause for scours in young bovines?
Diarrhea is common in young bovines between 6 and 8 months of age, and is caused by milk overload, viral or bacterial infections, or parasites.
What is the usual cause of scours in older bovines?
Diarrhea occurs in older animals from parasites, too rich of diet, sudden feed changes, g.i. infections, hardware disease, or johhnes disease.
How is hardware disease diagnosed in bovines?
Hardware disease is diagnosed by noting an increase in fibrinogen, WBCs, and temperature, and also by taking x-rays.
What is another name for Johhnes disease?
Johhnes disease is also called wasting disease.
What are the characteristics of Johhnes disease?
Johhnes disease is bacterial and is high contagious that causes viscera of intestines to thicken so lining is impaired reducing absorption.
What are 2 types of prolapses seen in bovines?
Prolapses seen in bovines include vaginal and uterus.
What are 7 types of metabolic diseases seen in bovines?
Metabolic diseases seen in bovines include milk fever, ketosis, grass tetany, mastitis, udder edema, pinkeye, and tuberculosis.
What is another name for milk fever?
Milk fever is also called hypocalcaemia.
What are the clinical signs of milk fever?
Clinical signs of milk fever present an animal that is weak, wobbly, collapses, and is running a high fever.
What is another name for ketosis?
Ketosis is also called acetonemia.
What is the treatment for ketosis?
Ketosis is treated with an IV using glucose and propylene glycol.
What is another name for grass tetany?
Grass tetany is also called hypomagnesaemia.
What is another name for pinkeye?
Pinkeye is also called infections bovine keratoconjunctivitis.
What is the cause of pinkeye?
Causes of pinkeye include flies, dirt, too much sun, and infections.
Where is the test site located for tuberculosis testing in bovines?
Tuberculosis testing is done on the underside of tail for bovines.
What are 4 clostridial diseases?
Clostridial diseases include leptospirosis, brucellosis, vibriosis, and anaplasmosis.
Which clostridial disease is zoonotic?
Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease.
What is another name for brucellosis?
Brucellosis is also called bangs.
What are the characteristics of vibriosis?
Vibriosis is a venereal disease causing infertility and early embryonic death.
What are the clinical signs of anaplasmosis?
Clinical signs of anaplasmosis are anemia, ictrus, and weight loss.
What are the characteristics of anaplasmosis?
Anaplasmosis is a parasite of RBCs, is transmitted by flies/ticks and unsterile needles, and is commonly seen in areas where cattle and deer graze together.
What are the 2 strains of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis?
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis has two strains, which are respiratory or reproductive.

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