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Test (TCN) Anatomy & Physiology 2


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Repetitive stimulation of muscle can produce a smooth rise in tension or contraction
that is called tetanus.
for the first few seconds of muscle contraction,
a ready reserve of energy is available in the form of creatine phosphate
A muscle that is specialized to
generate rapid, strong forces and also resist fatigue would be primarily composed of Type II (fast-twitch) fibers
The oxygen demand of exercising muscle
is due to the fact that energy for muscle contraction results from metabolic pathways that require oxygen.
The upper limit to performance in sustained exercise is believed to be set by the maximum rate at which
the cardiovascular system can deliver O2 and glucose to exercising muscles
The functional category of neurons that is responsible for neural integration is
The cells of the nervous system that are not neurons are
the glia
The system that provides information about the state of the internal organs is
the visceral sensory system
The region of a neuron where inputs from other neurons occur is called
the dendrites
Long-distance communication is relayed by what part of the neuron?
the axon
An effector is
any target of a neuron that is not another neuron
A synapse is
a point of close contact between axon terminals and target cells
The inside of the cell has
a high internal concentration of K+
The membrane potential
can become less inside-negative, which is called depolarization
Excitable cells that can generate action potentials
include muscle cells and neurons
The sequence of events in an action potential is
Depolarization, threshold exceeded, spike, and afterhyperpolarization
Where in a neuron does the action potential normally get initiated?
At the axon hillock
A refactory peroid
is a period of recovery of resting membrane properties after the spike
An advantage of myelination is that
action potentials can be conducted more rapidly by saltatory conduction
A nerve
is enclosed in a sheath or epineurium
In chemical synapses,
a neurotransmitter chemical is released from the presynaptic cell.
The role of Ca++ is chemical synaptic transmission is
to cause some synaptic vesicles to fuse with the presynaptic membrane
When the neurotransmitter binds to postsynaptic membrane receptors,
it causes depolarizing permeability change
A reflex
that is the quickest is the stretch reflex
At the two ends of a reflex arc we have
A sensory receptor and an effector
The withdrawl refex
acts to fles the ipsilateral appendage and exted the contralteral appendage
The cerebral hemispheres and basal nuclei arise from
the telencephalon
The CNS, the gray matter
is the neuron cell bodies
The ventricles of the brain
are filled with cerebrospinal fluid
The correct order of the meninges,listed from superficial to deep, is
the dura mater, arachnoid, and the pia mater
A somatotopic map
is a representation of information in the brain that roughly corresponds to the body surface
In the diecephalon, we find
the pineal gland
The hypothalamus
connects with the medulla oblongota to regulate endocrine function
The only cranial nerve that is purely special sensory is
the olfactory
A spinal nerve
connect with a sympathetic chain ganglion by a ramus communicante
A plexus is
an interlacing network of nerves
The spinal pathway called the spinalthalamic pathway
carries coarse touch, temperature, and pain senstions

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