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Psychology Test One Review


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Reticular Activating System
attention and arousal
-sleeping, dreaming, wakefulness
-Connects 2 halves of cerebellem
-base of brain stem
-automatic functions (breating, heartbeat)
-"Little Brain"
-balance and coordination
target visual and auditory stimuli
relay center for senses
Corpus Callosum
band of neural fibers that connect 2 halves of brain
Cerebral Cortex
-outer edge of cerebrum(thinking occurs)
-grey matter(densely packed neurons)
-top part of brain
-wrinkled for more surface area for neurons
-2 halves
-below thalamus
-hunger, thirst, sex drive, body temp
Olfactory Bulb
processes smells
3 General Parts of Brain
Hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain
scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Three Broad Areas of Psy
Clinical Psy
Applied Psy
Experimental Psy
Clinical Psy (general field)
-clinical, counseling, school psychologists
-perform testing and therapy for diagnosis
Clinical Psychologists
study serious mental illness
Counseling Psychologists
individuals with adjustment problems
School Psychologists
usually elementary school psychologists
Other Clinicians(broad field)
-MSW(Masters of Social Work
-Psychiatric Nurses
only mental health professional that can presribe medication
-Masters of Social Work
-perform psychiatric social work(family therapy, community change)
Psychiatric Nurses
work in psychiatric wards
Applied Psy(general field)
-researched aimed at real world problems
-work in diciplines outside psy
4 Fields of Psychologists in Applied Psy
-I/O(Industrial Organizational)
-Human Factor
Health Psychologists
prevention of illness
Forensic Psychologists
jury selection, profiling criminals
I/O Psychologists
-Industrial Organizational
-help companies(hiring, stress issues)
Human Factor Psychologists
-work with engineers with designing of products
Experimental Psy (def)
-usually work at colleges
-basic research
-comes before applied psy
Experimental Psy (types)
-Biological or Physiological
Biological or Physiological Psychologists
study relationships between behavior and biology (subject=animals)
Perception Psychologists
study how we pick up incoming stimuli and organize it
Developmental Psychologists
study human development over time (infant to adult)
Social Psychologists
study how human adults interact
Cognitive Psychologists
study how humans think and problem solve
Cross-Cultural Psychologists
study how psychological issue vary by culture
Comparative Psychologists
study how psy factors compare across species (primates)
humble and skeptical concideration of competing ideas
3 Assumptions of Science
-order to nature(therefore events are predictable)
-derterminism(everything has a cause)
-empirical(knowledge gained through senses)
4 Steps of the Scientific Method
-Define a hypothesis
-Collect data
-Draw conclusions
-Write up results
-independent variable
-variable that researchers manipulate(give to some not to others)
-dependent variable
-variable that researchers measure
Operationalize our variables
define variables by how we'll measure them
Experimental Group
recieves IV
Control Group
does not recieve IV
3 Means of Data Collection(Non-Experimental)
-natural observations
-case study
(all produce descriptive data)
Natural Observation
observe subjects in their natural habitat
Survey Data Collection
questionaires that are administered to a large number of subjects
Case Study
observe 1 subject in-depth
Descriptive Data
allows us to make predictions but never causal statements
Correlational Study
how variables relate to each other(never make causal statements)
Bruno Bettelheim
-wrote empty fortress
-children with autism
-mothers had depression, thought it was connected
Lewis (1998)
-TGA(Transent global amnesia)
-effects short term memory(temporal lobe)
Biological Psy
how behavior is related to functioning of brain and nervous system
2 Main parts of Nervous System
-CNS(central nervous system)
-PNS(Peripherual Nervous system)
-central nervous system
-brain and spinal cord
-peripherual nervous system
2 Types of PNS
-somatic motor system(carries info to skin, joints, muscles)
-autonomic nervous system(carries info to automatic body parts, heart, lungs, kidneys)
individual nerve cells in brain
6 Parts of a Neuron
-myelin sheath
-terminal buttons
-life center of neuron
-integrates incoming information
-decides whether or not to send info to other neurons
-branch like fibers
-antennas of a neuron
-recieve information for the neuron
-tree like structure
-carries info away from neuron
Myelin Sheath
-white matter of brain
-speeds up neural transmission of neurons
-prevents signal interference with other neurons
Terminal Buttons
vessicles that store chemicals at the end of the axon
gap between neurons
Neural Communication
Electrochemical process
Electrical Process
how info gets sent down one neuron
Resting potential
electrical charge of cell is at rest (- inside + outside)
Firing Threshold
inside of neuron is not positively charged
Action Potential
electrical charge or neural impulse(cell fires)
All or None Law
action potential will either fire or not(doesn't go half way)
Chemical Process
-communication between cells
-cell firing stimulates buttons to dump NTs
Neurotransmitters (NT)
chemicals that are stored at ends of axon
2 Types of Neurotransmitter Stimulation
-excitatory NT(more likely to tell cells to fire)
-inhibitory NT(tells cells not to fire or slow down)
inhibitory NT(tells cells not to fire or slow down)
substance that mimics a NT (etc GABA)
substance that blocks receptor sites for NTs
-muscle movement
-curare(poison dart) and botulism are antagonists for ACH
Serotonin NT
peace, well-being, concentration
Dopamine NT
-energy, alertness, aggression
-too much DA(paranoid)
limbic system
emotions(pleasure center)
Hippocampus(limbic system)
memory stores new info
amygdala(limbic system)

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