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chemistry final!


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balancing equations: must obey...
equations must obey the law of conservation of mass. (must ahve same # of atoms in each of the elements on each side of the equation)
combustion reactions of hydrocarbons
example: ch4+ o2 --> co2 + h20

= ch4 + 2o2 --> co2 + 2h20

gas + oxygen ---> co2 + h20
what are hydrocarbons?
organic compounds consisting of C + H only. (fossil fuels)
organic species with like molecular formula with different connectivity
all carbon bonds are single
there is at least one double C bond
at least one triple bond between two carbon atoms
benzene or aromatic compounds
all have benzene rings (know what they are)
saturated compound
all C atoms are bonded by single bonds
unsaturated compound
at least one double or triple bond present between C atoms.
contains one c=c double bond
contains more than one c=c double bond
general formula for alkanes
what is cis isomerism
functional groups on same side of C=C bond
what is trans isomerism
functional groups on opposite sides (across)
what does a halogenated hydrocarbon contain
a halogen atom
info on chloroform
CHCl3 (trichloromethane)- one of the first anesthetics
chorinated hydrocarbons found in drinking water.
chlorination of drinking water may react with natural organic compounds to create organic chlorinated HC's
a polymer

nonreactive and nonstick

C-F bonds
enhances or mimics effects of a particular NT
inhibits or blocks the effects of a certain NT
drug agonists of GABA do what?
depress the nervous system.
nuerotransmission is an ______ process
nueron path
action potential --> axon of nueron
CNS = ?
central nervous system= brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system= carries incoming signals from environment to the CNS via sensory nuerons and sends signals from CNS other areas of body via motor nuerons
voluntary motor nueron
usually CNS signals so skeletal muscles
involuntary motor nueron
not conciously controlled
gap between nuerons is the ____
synapse or synaptic gap
pre-synaptic nueron
sends the action potential down the axon
post synaptic nueron
recieves the signal from the presynaptic nueron
action potential
electric signal going down the axon of presynaptic nueron. causese vesicles to fuse with the outer membrane of the axon
NT binding
nuerotransmitters are released from the fixed vesicles into the synaptic gap. they travel across the gap and bind to certain receptor proteins in the dendrite of the post synaptic nueron
NT binding causes an action potential to be generated in the post synaptic nueron, continuing the signal to the target gland or muscle
nuerotransmitters must be removed from the receptor process to occur again. the NT is released or broken down, "sucked" back into its presynaptic nueron via reuptake proteins and repacackaged into vesicles.
aids in concious skeletal muscle control. excess or deficiency may cause respiratory paralysis (chem warfare gases or other toxins)
regulates general behavior and mood, dreaming. an excess causes elation, hyperactivity, or mania.
sleep, sensory perception, appetite, mood and behavior. deficiency- depression, suicidal tendencies. excess- altered perception of reality
provides a euphoric effect. affects fine motor control of skeletal muscle. deficiency causes parkinsons or lost off fine muscular control. excess- schizophrenia. (agonists include cocaine, amphetamines)
based on organophosphorous insecticides
4x as toxic as Tabun. odorless. used in 1995 in tokyo subway. organophosphorous based
in low amounts acts as an ACh agonist
in high levels acts as an ACh agonist and can cause flaccid respiratory paralysis.
carboxylic acid structure
carboxylic acid naming
replace parent chain alkane with suffix "oic"
carboxylic acid properties
-found in amino acids, protiens, fatty acids, oils and intermediates the metabolism of carbohydrates
- very sharp, unpleasant odors
- sour taste
fatty acids
long chained carboxylic acid (12-24 C atoms) with an even # of C atoms
saturated fatty acids
all c-c single bonds
most monounsaturated fatty acids are in the ___ form
as # of carbon atoms increase in alcohol, solubility in h2o:
boiling points of alcohol
as the # of C atoms in alcohol increases, its boiling point increases
structure of methanol
properties of methanol
very toxic
15 ml can cause blindness
100-250 ml causes death
fuel for indy 500 cars
oxidation reaction of alcohol
-adding an O atom or removing H atoms.
-how liver processes most toxins in body
-oxidation of alcohol forms aldehyde by removing 2H atoms
common oxidizing agent in body
[nad+] which takes H atoms to become NADH
structure of ethanol
max % of alcohol from fermentation
how to get higher % of ethanol for "spirits"
max % ethanol for distillation
2-propanol structure
common name of 2-propanol
rubbing alcohol
uses of propanol
skin coolant
antiseptic to kill microorganisms
structure for ethylene glycol
properties of ethylene glycol
main ingredient in antifreeze

lower freezing point and higher boiling point than h2o
structure for glycerol
properties of glycerol
non toxic
moisturizer in cosmetics
viscous (doesn't flow well)
cell death due to alcohol
-ethanol rapidly permeates into cells
-can destroy cell structures anc cause cell death
alcohols and fetii
-a fetus can't metabolize ethanol
-can hamper cell division and cause cell death
-leads to physical deformation (terratogen)
addiction and pain relief effect
the acetaldehyde formed upon oxidation of ethanol appears to react with seratonin to form a species that binds to opiod receptor sites in nervous system which creates an effect similar to morphine.
depressing action of alcohol
-mimics action of GABA
-central nervous system depressant
-as BAL increases, deeper centers of the brain are depressed. (over .4%, death is possible)
tolerance of alcohol
as ethanol levels stimulate GABA receptor sites over long periods, the body responds by producing more GABA receptor protiens so more ethanol is required to reach same initail effect.
depression due to alcohol
if drinking is stopped, the overabundance of GABA receptor proteins can cause depression and withdrawal symptoms
ethanol and ulcers
consumption of ethanol appears to increase the amount of HCl in stomach, leading to ulcers
structure of aldehydes
/ \
structure of ketones
/ \
naming of aldehydes
suffix is "-al"
properties of aldehydes
-may cause asthma, dermatitus
-found in SMOG
-used in polymers and disinfecting + sterilyzing equipment
aldehydes are found in ____
the perfume industry and commercial flavoring
naming of ketones
replace the e from the parent alkane with the suffix "one"
general ketone uses and properties
-used widely in solvents
-found as metabolic by-products due to energy production from fats when no carbohydrates are present
if no carbohydrates are available for energy...
then fats and proteins are broken down for energy, creating by-products. long term, those by-products build up to toxic levels
structure of acetone
if ketone bodies build up enough it can lead to ketoacidosis (acidifying of blood)
ketone bodies found in urine
causes of ketoacidosis
1. prolong atkins
2. starvation
3. diabetes
acetone breath is due to...
expulsion of acetone through the breath to excrete ketone bodies
replaced C atom in the parent chain with an O atom
naming of ethers
treat the C groups on both sides of the atom as side groups and and name them in alphabetical order.
methyl tertbutly ether- additive in gasoline provides O atoms so fuel burns cleaner
properties and uses of ethers
-tend to be nonreactive
-some may oxidize slowly in air, forming explosive persoxide compounds
-are fat soluble in the body and act as central nervous system depressants
-act as anesthetics
2 types of anesthetics
general: induce unconsciousness and act over entire body

local: topical or ingested. act as numbing agents on small areas
properties of chloroform
safety margin: narrow
long recovery time
diethyl ether CH2CH3 properties
1st anesthetic used
long recovery time
quick and effective
cause nausea
modern anesthetics (halogenated ethers)
much safer and effective
may cause increased risk of miscarraige from long term exposure
laughing gas (N20)
-nitrous oxide
-dinitrogen monoxide
-discovered in 1772
-not very potent
-must mix with oxygen to avoid hypoxia
organic solvent vapors from glue, rubber cement, gasoline, etc.
local anesthetics
cocaine- 1st local anesthetic used in 1860
novocaine- synthesized in 1905 (one of most effective)
lidocaine- common topical used (sunburn ointments)
3 ways to reduce pain
1. prevent or limit prostoglandins
2. limit the NT process signal through the nervous system to brain
3. alter brain's perception of pain signal (psychotropic narcotics)
prevent or limit chems that instigate the pain process (aspirin, ibuprofin)
-work by blocking the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme
-many are called NSAIDs
naming of carboxylic acids
replace parent chain alkane with the suffix "oic"
ester structure

(non terminal)
common odors associated with esters
-pleasant smells (fruits and flowers)
-esters are found in fats and oils, as well as phospholipids in cell membranes
amides general structures
naming of simple amines
name the R group as a side group and add amine.
properties of amines
-simple amines have nauseating odors
-very physiologically active
amines are found in:
amino acids, proteins
some NTs
some hormones
most physiologically active drugs
many toxins and poisons
amines + caroxylic acids --> amides + water
take OH group from acid and H from amine to make water. combine rest of molecule to make amide.
-natual plant compounds containing amines.
-tend to taste bitter and poisonous
-very physiologically active and tend to be addictive
amide structure
|| /
amide uses and properties
-not basic like amines
-main functioning unit in proteins
-less physiologically active than amines
amino acid general structure
| |
properteis of amino acids
-20 different in body, only difference is the R groups
-the amine group of one amino acid can react with carboxylic acid group of any of the 20 amino acids to form an amide bond (peptide bond)
complete protiens
meat, vegetarians must eat complimentary foods (rice+beans)
amino acids connect together to form proteins, the amide bonds that connect them are ________.
peptide bonds
less than 50 amino acids
more than 50 amino acids
primary level of protein structure
-sequence of amino acids
-stabilized by very strong peptide bonds
secondary level of protein structure
-coiling or folding of the primary chain of amino acids
-stabilized by hydrogen bonds between carboxylic acids and amine groups in the chain
2 types of secondary level of protein structure
alpha- corkscrew formation

beta- folding of primary chain
tertiary level of protein structure
- looping, bending, folding of the 1 and 2 structures
4 ways to stabilize the 3 structure
1. hydrogen bonding (between R groups on amino acids)
2. ionic salt bridges (attraction between amine and carbox acid groups)
3. disulfide bridges (a s-s bond that forms when 2 cystene amino acids react)
4. hydrophobic pockets- weak attraction between R groups
quaternary structure of protein formation
-not all proteins have 4 structure
-when multiple polypeptides interact together as a unit to function as a single protein.
ways to denature proteins
temperature change, blood acidity change, heavy metals, toxicity and poisons
digesting protiens
-reverse of their formation reaction
-require water and proteases (digest enzyme)
-stomach acid activates pepsin, the acidic environment denatures proteins so they are easier to digest
-proteases from the pancreas break the protein down into amino acids
-amino acids pass through intestinal walls into bloodstream
-stomach walls secrete mucin, which protects the proteases from digesting the stomach walls
uses of proteins
-immune system
-structure: skin, nails, hooves
-energy source
-source of nitrogen in body
-o2 transport
1) glucose
2. galactose
3. fructose

1. maltose
2. sucrose
3. lactose
1. starch
2. cellulose
3. glycogen
4. pectins
glucose properties/uses
-primary fuel in body (4 calories per gram)
-main short term source of energy
-another common name is dextrose (blood sugar)
-all carbs digest and metabolize into glucose
if OH group is "up" in a cyclic form, then it is a ___ glucose
if the OH group is down in a cyclic form, it is an ____ glucose
breakdown of glucose is called:
buildup of glucose is called:
metabolism of glucose for energy
glucose- pyruvic acid- ATP
lactic acid
if there is more glucose in body than is needed for energy:
glucose is stored in muscles and liver as glycogen
formation of glycogen from glucose
the breakdown of glycogen to form glucose
-an isomer of glucose with the OH group on C#4 up instead of down
-found in lactose and plant pectins
-enzyme converts galactose into glucose
-if lacking in that enzyme, galactoselevels build up.
-lacking in enzyme that converts galactose to glucose
-cause liver problems, cataracts or mental retardation
maltose is made up of:
glucose and glucose
lactose is made up of:
glucose and galactose
glucose and fructose
humans do not have enzymes that break up ____ bridges between glucose units
2 types of starch
amylose- no branching, coils
amylopectin- small degree of branching, more alpha glucose units
-straight chain
-beta glucose units
-helps colon cancer risk
- most highly branched
-largest (up to a million units)
trans fatty acids cause:
higher risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease
hydrogenation reactions
add hydrogen to convert double to single bonds
unsaturated fats can be hydrogenated to make:
a. completely saturated fats
b. partially hydrogenated vegetable oils
as the # of C=C double bonds increase, the melting point ____
EPA uses
-helps maintain a healthy nervous system
-may decrease cancer risk
-aids in joint and heart health
DHA uses
-important in development of the brain and eyes of infants and fetii
-benefits memory, concentration, learning
-found in breast milk
main sources/benefits of fatty acids
-salmon, mackerel, flaxseed oil
-appear to give a large decrease in risk of heart disease and cancer
organic molecules that are not soluble in water
what are triglycerides
fats, oils
what is fat
triglycerides containing all saturated fats and oils
triglyerides containing at least one unsaturated fatty acid
unsaturated oils tend to be:
digestion of dietary triglycerides is:
the reverse of formation process, with appropriate digestive enzymes (lipases)
saturated animal fats cause:
an increased risk of heart disease becasue they tend to stack on arterial walls more readily vs. unsaturated oils.
general hardening of arterial walls
plugging of artery due to blood clot
plugging of an artery from a blood clot from somewhere else in the body.
bulging of weakened artery, may burst
lactic acid builds up due to:
anaerobic activities
lactic threshold
the point when the acidity from H3O build up causes muscle fatigue.
triglyceride formation
glycerol + 3 fatty acids --> triglyceride + H20
steroid uses:
-muscle mass
-anti inflammatory species
cholesterol uses
precursor to formation of:
-sex hormones
-vitamin D
healthy cholesterol level
300mg/day and 200mg/overall
-healthy cholesterol
-cholesterol avoids water so certain proteins are used for blood transport
-high density lipoprotein
-carries from blood to liver to make bile, hormones
-low density lipoprotein
-bad cholesterol
-carry cholesterol into blood and can build up into atherosclerosis
-dilate the blood vessels so the heart doesn't need to work as hard.
-metabolize in your body into NO that relax muscle tissue
beta blockers
-block beta receptor proteins on heart tissue for adrenaline (epinephrine) and norepinephrine
-help regulate heartbeat
calcium channel blockers
-nerve signals to heart cells cause Ca2+ ions to flow into cells through a protein "gate" or channel which then initiates muscle contraction
-reduce cholesterol levels by hamperins certain liver enzymes that are needed to produce cholesterol in the liver.
-reduce inflammation
-very large esters (many C atoms)
-repel water
-structurally similar to triglycerides
c-reactive proteins
- a sign of inflammation of the arterial walls. modern medical "risk of potential heart problems"
prolonged ischemia can cause:
stroke: lack of blood flow to areas of the brain
heart attack- lack of blood flow to heart
inability to remove glucose from bloodstream into cells (high blood sugar levels and it's physiological effects)
type 1
-previously known as "juvenile"
-autoimmune disease where the immune system attacks and destroys the pancreatic B-cells that produce insulin, so glucose levels stay high in the bloodstream
type 2 diabetes
-"adult onset diabetes"
-due to poor exercise/diet habits, the insulin receptor proteins on cells diminish in function over time
-plenty of insulin
-blood sugar levels stay high
too much blood sugar
low blood sugar
diabetes effects
-vascular damage
-nueral damage
-high rate of urination
-fat deposits and scar tissue build up and deform the liver
-can cause jaundice, edema, gallstones
ethanol acts as a diuretic by blocking:
ethanol has a slight narcotic effect due to seratonins bonding with
ethanol + acetaldehyde=
acetic acid
acetaldehyde causes:
hangover symptoms
ethanol oxidizes in the liver at a rate of:
1oz per hour
energy of ethanol:
fat builds up from ethanol consumption by...
ethanol consumes NAD, NAD is required to break down fat.
ethanol dilates blood vessels
-increased blood flow near skin surfaces
-feel warmer
-flushes skin

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