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EAWS Common Core 112:Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Warfare


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Why is the CMWD activated continuously?
To protect against overheating from wearing protective gear for long periods of time.
When was the earliest known use of biological warfare?
14th century. Tartar warriors catapulted bodies of sick people over the walls of Caffa, a Black Sea Port. The illness swept through the town.
What is the purpose of wet weather clothing?
Worn over other types of clothing. Protects against penetration of liquid agents and radioactive particles.Reduces the amount of vapor that reaches the skin.
What is the purpose of Atropine/2 Pan chloride (Oxime) auto injector?
Used for specific therapy for nerve agent casualties. Issued in automatic injectors for intramuscular injection self-aid or first aid.
What is the purpose of a Chemical protective overgarment?
It is treated with chemicals that neutralize blister agent vapors and sprays, but do not stop penetration by liquid agents. Gives limited protection against other types of CBR contaminants.
What is the pupose of a MCU-2/P protective mask?
To filter the air, removing particles of dust that may be radioactive or caontaminated & purifies the air of many poisonous gases.
What is the DT-60 personnel doimeter?
Nonself-reading. High-range csualty dosimeter, must read in a special radiac computer-indicator to determine gamma radiation exposure. 0-600 roentgens.
What is Radiological Warfare?
The deliberate use of radiological weapons to produce injury and death in man.
What is MOPP?
Mission Oriented Protective Posture. Defines amount of protective CBR gear to wear of have readily available.
What is MOPP 2?
Gas masks are carried. Pre-position decontamination supplies. Set material condition ZEBRA(modified).
What is MOPP 1?
Gas masks fitted, issued and kept at battle stations. Inventory of chemical/biological defense equipment & supplies is conducted.
What is Chemical Warfare?
Intentional use of lethal or nolethatl chemical agents to produce casualties;harass or temporarily incapacitate, & demoralize personnel; or contaminate or destroy areas, equipment & supplies.
What is Biological Warfare?
Intential use of living organisms to disable or destroy people or their domestic animals, damage crops, &/or deteriorate supplies. Difficult to detect & slow to identify.
What is a IM-143 pocket dosimeter?
Self reading pocket dosimeter about the size and shape of a fountain pen. Ranges of 0-5,0-200 &0-600 roentgens & 0-200 millroentgens. Measure radiation over a period of time.
What does wet weather gear consist of?
Parka, trousers, rubber boots, and gloves. Is easily decontaminated.
What does the MCU-2/P not protect against?
Does not provide Oxygen or protect against smoke/toxic gases i.e. carbon monoxide, ammonia. Can be used for emergency escape as last resort.
WHat does the CBR suit consist of?
Trousers, hip-length jumper w/ attached hood, and associated gloves and foot coverings.
What do you wear during MOPP 4?
Don Gas Mask and secure hood. Don gloves.
What do you wear at MOPP 3?
New filters on masks. Don smock w/hood down, trousers & overboots. Stow personal decon gear in mask carrier. Gloves & med supplies in jumper pocket.
What are the syptoms of blood agents?
Depend on concentration & duration of exposure. Deep breathing and violent contractions after 20-30 sec. Heart can stop after only a few minutes. Long exp. to low concentrations can damage central nervous system.
What are the symptoms of nerve agents?
Pupil contraction, tightness of the chest causing increased deep breathing. 1-5 mins of exposure may impair vision. Sweating &twitching at site of exposure. Lethal dose would include getting liquid into eyes or vapor inhalation.
What are the symptoms of choking agents?
Immediate dryness of the throat, coughing, choking, tightness in the chest, headache, nausea, and watering of the eyes.
What are the 4 types of chemical casualty agents?
Choking, Nerve, Blood, and Blister agents.
What actions do you take during MOPP 4?
Initiate continuous monitoring of detection equipment. Set condition Circle William (security of air vents)Activate CMWD system continuously.
What actions do you take during MOPP 3?
Go to GQ. Set ZEBRA. Fill canteens w/ water. Activate stations. Post & monitor detection equip. Activate Counter Measure Washdown System CMWD system intermittently.
Name some examples of biological warfare agents?
Anthrax virus, ebola virus, smallpox, and plague.
Name an example of a nerve agent.
Sarin gas a colorless liquid w/ almost no odor.
Name an example of a choking agent.
Chlorine CL, a yellow gas.
Name an example of a blood agent.
Hydorgen cyanide a colorless gas or liquid that smells like bitter almonds.
Name a example of a blister agent.
Mustard gas or liquid. Liquid is dark yellow and has a musty or fish like smell.
How long can you wear the CBR suit in engineering spaces?
Up to 1 hour.
How long can anthrax spores be stored?
Up to a century. Does not spread from human to human but through spores.
How do you read a IM-143 pocket dosimeter?
Hold it up to the light and look through the eyepiece. Must be recharged and zeroed before and after use.
Describe the effects of radiation in relation to a nuclear explosion.
Alpha & beta particles, gamma & neutron radiation. Alpha must be ingested or taken in through cut. Beta can burn. Gamma, pure energy, pass through body and can ionize cells. Neutrons are greatest penetrators. Can get captured in atoms of body.
Describe the effects of flash burn/blindness in relation to a nuclear explosion.
Primary & Secondary. Primary are direct result of thermal radiation. Secondary are result of fires caused by exposion. Flash may temporarily blind for 15 min or 45 min at night.Greater danger is from thermal burn to the eyes/40 miles or more form blast.
Describe the effects of EMP(electromagnetic pulse) in relation to a nuclear explosion.
Produced by high altitude, air & surface bursts. Ionizing atomosphere create it. Frequency of few to several hundred Kilocycles per sec. Magnetic and electric fields last only fractions of a second. Trips circuits, blows fuses or fries systems.
Describe the effects of blast in relation to a nuclear explosion.
Primary injuries & secondary injuries. Primary is caused by blast itself. Secondary is cause by effects of blast on the surrounding environment.
Describe the effects of Blackout in relation to a nuclear explosion.
Loss of lights or electrical power failure during a nuclear attack.
Describe the boots worn with the CBR suit.
Black butlye rubber, impermeable and have a non-slip rubber sole. Come in 2 sizes. Worn over shoes on either foot.
Describe Nerve agents.
Most effective because only small doses are need to produce death. Small amounts left on skin can cause death in minutes.
Describe Choking agents.
1st used in WWI, cause respiratory system to accumulate fluid in the lungs, may lead to death.
Describe Blister agents.
Burns are bad in moist areas of the body i.e. armpits, groin, bends of elbows/knees. Throat may be sore and pneumonia may develop. Entire body exposure usually results in shock then nausea/vomiting.
Describe an Air Burst.
Huge intense hot fireball that does not touch the earth's surface. Everything is vaporized. Mushroom cloud. Blast wave causes most damage. Greatest danger is fallout.
Describe a Surface Burst.
Produces worst fallout. Fireball touches the ground. Fallout area much larger than area affected by heat and shock.
Describe a shallow underwater burst.
Fireball smaller than airburst usually not visable. Creates cavity that rises to surface and shoots up column of water that collapses and forms a base surge(circular cloud of mist) Waves 90ft w/in few 100 feet.
Describe a High Altitude Burst.
Point of detonation is in excess of 100,000 feet. Causes widespread disturbances in the ionosphere i.e. EMP.
Describe a deep underwater burst.
Same as Shallow underwater burst, but more impact absorbed by the deep ocean currents. Less visually but amount of contaminated water is greater.
Descibe Blood agents.
Interfere with the distribution of oxygen by the blood. Typically death occurs rapidly or recovery takes place w/in a few mins of removal from contaminated area.

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