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Bio 2 Chapte Vocabr


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physiological Adjustment to a change in an enviromental factor
Antiduretic Hormone
hormone that is part of an elaborate feedback scheme that helps regulate the osmolarity of the bood
an increase in the diameter of superfical blood vessels triggered by nere signals that relax the muscles of the vessel walls
Brown fat
a special tissue in some mammals, located in the neck and between the shoulders, that is
specialized for rapid heat production
the direct transfer of thermal motion (heat) between molecule of objects in direct contact with
each other
a characterization of an animal in regard to environmental variables. The animal is a
conformer of it allows some conditions within its body to vary with certain external change.
the mass movement of warmed air of liquid to or from the surface of a body of object.
Daily torpor
daily decrease in metabolic activity and corresponding body temp, during times of inactivity
for some small mammals and birds. the physiological changes during resting periods enable these
organisms to survive on energy stores in their tissue.
an animal such as a reptile, fish, or amphibian, that must use environmental energy and
behavioral adaptations to regulate its body temperature
an animal that uses metabolic energy to maintain a constant body temperature higher than that
of the external environment
the removal of heat energy from the surface of a liquid that is losing some of its molecules
the disposal of nitrogen-contaning waste products of metabolism
Fluid extracted by the excretory system from the blood or body cavity. The excretory system produces urine from the filtrate after extracting valuable solutes from it and concentrating it
in the vertebrate kidney, the extraction of water and small solutes, including metabolic wastes, from the blood by the nephrons
Heat-Shock protein
a protein that helps protect other proteins during heat stress, found in planst, animals, and microrganisms
a physiological state that allows surcical during long periods of cold termperatures and reduced food supplies in which metabolism decreases, the hart and respiratory system slow down, and body temperature is maintened at a lower level than normal
the stedy-state phsiological condition of the body
Malpigian tubule
a unique exretory organ of insects that empties into the digestive tract, remoces nitrogenous wastes from the blood, and functions in osmoregulation
the tubular excretory unit of the vertebrate kidney
an animal that does not actively adjust its internal osmolarity because it is isotonic with its envirnment
solute concentration expressed as molarity
the control of water balance in organisms living in hypertonic, hypotonic, or terrestrial environments
an animal whose body fluids have different osmolarity than the environmenta, and that must eith discharfe excess water if it lives in a hypotonic environment or take in water if it inhabits a hypertonic environment
Q10 effect
the phenomenon that the rates of most enzyme-mediated reations increase by a factor of 2-3 for every 10 C temperature increase
the emission of electromagnetic waves by all objects warmer than absolute zero
a characterization of an animal in regar to a particular environmental bariable. the animal is a regulator for that variable if it used mechanisms of homeostasis to moderate internal change in the face of exernal fluctuation
the discharge of molecules synthesised by a cell. in the verebrate kidney, the discharge of wastes from the blood into the filtrate from the Nephron tubules
Stress-induced proteins
special molecules, including heat-shock proteins, thats are produced within cells in response to exposure to marked increases in temperature and to other forms of severe stress such as tocins, rapid pH changes, and viral infections
the maintenance of internal temperature within a tolerable range
in animals, a physiological state that conserves energy by slowing down the heart and repiratory system
a soluble from of nitogenous waste excreted by mammals and most adult amphibians
Uric acid
an insoluble precipitate of nitrogenous waste excreted by land snails, insects and some reptiles
a degrease in the diameter of superficial blood vessels triggered by nerve signals that contract the muscles of the vessel walls
a physiological state characterized by slow metabolism and inactivity, which permits survival during long periods of elecated temperature and siminished water supplies

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