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American Studies 2

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Terms

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SALT 1
a plan to limit nuclear arms the two nations had been working on for years
Joseph McCarthy
United States politician who unscrupulously accused many citizens of being Communists (1908-1957)
Korean War
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
Malcom X
spokesperson for african american self sufficiency
camp david accords
A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt where Egypt agreed to recognize the nation state of Israel
reagonomics
trickle down theory
kent state
4 students killed by National Guardsmen after violent protesting in this university
medicare
health insurance provided by the federal govermetn for aged or disabled people
lyndon johnson
successor to Kennedy, started new round of reform known as Great Society, which included medicare and medicaid
NOW national organization for women
promoted full participation of women in american society
roe vs. wade
Supreme Court declared abortion to be a private decision, Right to Abortion
ho chi minh trail
Trail that ran through neutral countries that allowed the N.V. to get more supplies even during a blockade.
Strategic denfense initiative
reagans proposed defense system against soviet missile attack
job corps
no cost educational and vocational traning program for youth
cuban missile crisis
result of bay of pigs. castro allowed soviet to base nuclear missiles in cuba
Berlin Airlift
Joint effort by the US and Britian to fly food and supplies into W Berlin after the Soviet blocked off all ground routes into the city
war powers act
Act that grants emergency executive powers to president to run war effort
pentagon papers
classified information of the war
iran contra scadal
scandal in reagon administration involving use of money from secret Iranian arms sales
peace corps.
volunteered 2 years to help people in underdeveloped countries
napalm
gasoline jelled with aluminum soaps
jimmy carter
1977-1981 Dealt with energy crisis, Iran Hostage situation, high inflation and high unemployment
Brown vs. Board of Education
Stated in 1954 that it was unconstitutional to maintain separate black and white schools
newt gingrich
called on republican congressional to endorse contract with america
Marshall Plan
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
gerald ford
president after Nixon, granted Nixon full pardon, helped control inflation and reduce role of government in people's lives
SCLC
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
defense spending
gov. spending for military or armed forces
Warsaw Pact
An alliance between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations. This was in response to the NATO
iran hostage crisis
the Shah of Iran (a US ally) came to US after a revolution in Iran and armed students took 52 American hostages. (contributed to the defeat of Carter in 1980 election)
baby boom
the larger than expected generation in United States born shortly after World War II
Rosa Parks
African American woman who refused to give up her seat to a white man on a bus
berlin wall
symbolized communism and division of Germany separated communist and non-communist berlin
persian gulf war
limited military operation to drive Iraqi forces out of Kuwait
NAFTA
agreement calling for the removal of tarriffs among us. canada and mexico
supply-side economics
theory that tex reductions will increase investment
Truman Doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
my lai massacre
Lieutenant Calli ordered US troops to kill a village of vietnamese people
betty friedan
American Feminist, writer of The Feminine Mystique, cofounded NOW
warren commission
10 month investigation of the assassination of JFK
al gore
vice president under clinton. lost election of 2000
george H. bush
continued reagans conservative policies. brought together UN colilition to fight gulf war
watergate
Break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate building in 1972 that resulted in a cover-up and the subsequent resignation of Nixon
containment
(military) the act of containing something or someone
yasir arafat
palestine liberation leader. signed peace agreement with israel
civil rights act of 1964
outlawed discrimination in employment on the basis of race, sex, or religion
new right
politial coalition formed by conservtive groups
detente
the easing of tensions or strained relations (especially between nations)
affirmative action
policy that gives special consideration to women and members of minorities to make up for past discrimination
beatniks
a United States youth subculture of the 1950s
bay of pigs invasion
attempt to overthrow the cuban gov of fidel castro
satellite Nations
countries subject to Soviet domination
contra
rebel opposed to NIcaragua's communist gov.
richard nixon
the only president forced to resign, after the watergate scandal. Great with foreign policy
ERA equal rights amendment
proposed constitutional ammendment, never ratified-no discrimination of sex
tet offensive
Attack By North Vietnamese and Vietcong Troops Against South Vietnam During The Vietnam War
Martin Luther King Jr.
became the spokesperson for the Montgomery bus boycott
rachel carson
one of the first people to realize the global dangers of pesticide abuse (DDT). Wrote Silent Spring.
george w. bush
led efforts to unite world against terrorism. won electoral votes
Freedom rides
designed to test whether southern states would obey Supreme Court rulings for African American rights
non violent protest
a peacesful way of protesting against restrictive policies.
agent orange
a herbicide used in the Vietnam War to defoliate forest areas
NASA
conducts research on problems of flight on earth and space
spiro agnew
VP that resigned due to accepting bribes
great society
President Johnson's ambitious program of social reforms.
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
gulf of tonkin resolution
allowed the president to take all necassay measures to repel armed attack or prevent further aggression
rock and roll
a genre of popular music originating in the 1950s
iron curtain
• Describes the divisions between communist and non-communists
fall of saigon
North Vietnam Captures Saigon the capital of the south
plumbers
people whose job it was to stop leaks of what Nixon was trying to achieve from being let out of the White House
Interstate Highway Act
a 1956 law initiated by Truman that authorized 41,000 miles of highways to be built
Cold War
war of threat between US and USSR
vietnamization
withdrawing U.S. troops and emphasizing asitional responsiblilites of South Vietnam
ronald reagan
conservative president. supported supply side economics. created huge budget defecits
three mile island
Nuclear Reactor that suffers a meltdown in 1979 near Harrisburg, PA
deferment
an official postponement to a call to serve
EPA environmental protection agency
enforced national pollution control standards
CREEP
Nixon Whitehouse fundraising organization, laundred money in what came to be know as Watergate Scandal
Taft Hartley Act
Allowed the government to apply for a court order to delay for 80 days any strike that threatened public health or safety.
New frontier
used by JFk in acceptance speech. his domestic and foreign programs
38th parallel
line of latitude that separated North and South Korea
bill gates
founder of microsoft, revolutionized personal computing.
Levittown
Towns in which houses were built on an assembly line. The houses were cheap and all families could afford them.
brinkmanship
the policy of pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of disaster (to the limits of safety)
OPEC
an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
Nuremberg Trials
SSeries of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes
Jonas Salk
invented the polio vaccine in 1950s
de facto segregation
segregation (especially in schools) that happens in fact although not required by law
John F. Kennedy
President during cuban missile crisis. Assasinated in 1968
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Supreme Court case which ruled that \separate but equal\ was constitutional,
SNCC
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee
head start
program to overcome the negative effects of poverty on young children
Dwight D. Eisenhower
leader of the Allied forces in Europe then was elected to be Pres. of the USA
vietnam war
the conflict in which South Vietnam, supported by the U.S. was defeated by Communist North Vietnam
Sputnik
a Russian artificial satellite
william clinton
advocated ecomnomic and healthcare reform. 2nd pres. to be impeached
March on Washington
held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally

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