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ENV H 111 Final


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Center for Disease Control
Environmental Protection Agency
Men In Black
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Does Research for OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration Enforces NIOSH
Evironmental Health Professionals
Occupational Health, Industrial Hygenist, Toxicology, Radiation Physics, Environment
GI tract area and contact
2100 square feet
24lbs food/liquid
1500 square feet
50 lbs of air/day

most contact
21 square feet
variable contact
The three ways bad stuff gets into the body
lungs, GI tract, and Skin
Skin Barriers
–Multiple layers of skin, keratin, sebaceous secretions then the capillary wall.
Gut Barriers
–One layer of thick epithelium, one layer of basement membrane and connective tissue then capillary wall.
Lung Barriers
–One layer of cells, a basement membrane and capillary wall.
How do bad things get into the body? What efffects entry?
Solubility of toxin, size of particulates, and the duration of contact.
Where are water soluble things best absorbed?
gut & lungs
Where are fat soluble things best absorbed?
the skin
What happens to large particles? Small?
Particles of small size reach and deposit in the lung.
Larger particulates are coughed up or sneezed up or swallowed.
How many people lose their lives to occupational accidents and work related diseases anually?
2.2 million men and women are deprived of lifeby occupational accidents and work-related diseases annually
How many new Occupational accidents are their in a year?
270 million new occupational accidents
How many new work-related diseases occur anually?
160 million new occupational diseases
What is the most important disease today, how many people does it effect anually?
0.7-2.7 million people die from Malaria each year
How many accident related deaths are there in China anually?
⬢90,000 accident deaths/ year
⬢12/100,000 per year
How many disease and accidents deaths are there per year in China?
⬢400,000 disease & accident deaths per year
⬢54/100,000 per year
When was the London fog and what was the significance?
London Fog, 1953 air pollution
–Large numbers of deaths from air pollution
–Our first real understanding of the potential for air pollution to induce massive death
What big thing happened in Japan? Everything about it.
MinamataBay, mercury release
–Release of Mercury from Chiso(fertilizer/plastics) plant into bay causing contamination of fish-
–Many of the fishing population affected
What happened in India? Where? When?
Bhopal, India, 1984 toxic industrial release
–Toxic release of Methyl Isocyanategas from Union Carbide plant in India
•3000 immediate deaths
•15-18,000 related deaths
What is a Maquiladora?
The MaquiladoraPhenomena–>1 million work in 3000 factories in Mexico –Work conditions harsh, pay poor, life expensive–Now factories moving where labor is cheaper–Occupational health and safety is poorly surveyed and rarely enforced
Effects of mercury poisoning?
nerological diseases
Arsenic poisoning?
Hyperkerotosis, skin legions, skin cancer, lung cancer
Lung cancer, Restrictive Lung Disease
What was the sit. with Metalclad and mexico?
⬢Metalclad, A waste disposal company tried to set up a toxic waste disposal site in Mexico
⬢The adjacent city and state blocked the development
⬢Metalcladsued under NAFTA
⬢Mexico must pay Metalclad$16 million compensation
What is an epidemic?
an increase from the normal frequency
Silica poisoning?
Restrictive Lung Disease
What is Passive Immunity?
Immunity you get from someone else. (ex. mother child)
What is Active Immunity? What are the two types?
Natural active--get from having a infection, ex. chicken pox
Induced active--from vaccination
What is a host?
Host:an animal or person in whom the disease presides (lives)
What is a disease agent?
Disease Agent:something that causes disease, usually a microbe or toxin
What is a vector?
Vector:an organism that coveys an agent from one host to another
What is a Vehicle/Fomite?
Vehicle or Fomite: an inanimate object which transmits a disease agent to a new host
What is prevalence?
Prevalence:Ratio of people with disease to the population
What is incidence?
Incidence:Ratio of new cases to the person-time in a population
What three hazardous substances are transported to developing countries?
E waste
ship breaking
chemical waste
Who is Edward Jenner? What did he do?
Edward Jennermade a remarkable observation about Milkmaids
⬢He inoculated people with cowpox to prevent smallpox
⬢It worked
⬢Smallpox is the only disease we have eradicated
When BiosolidsAre Eaten by Bacteria
•In an oxygen deprived environment
–Produces what?
What happens in Libby Montana
Vermiculite mining
–Produced Asbestosis in a substantial portion of the population
–Likely to lead to lung cancer in many
–What is it?
higher dose, greater response
The Precautionary Principle
–What is it?
Act in favor of precaution when faced with uncertainty
What effect does an “Ethic” have?
–It is limiting of freedom
What is a half life in toxicology?
⬢The time it takes for the body to excrete half of the dose
What is a half life in radiation?
Time it takes for the compound to loose half of its energy
How do we get rid of solid waste?
Burning or Landfills
Downsides to burning?
heavy metal ash,
air pollution. Can make ash into concrete
Landfills are...
A common way to get rid of solids
Hazardous waste is landfilled differently, How?
Double-leakproofliners, leachatereclamation, runoff control, leak detectors
What is AQI?
The air quality index, calculated by the EPA based on five air pollutants. (one of these with the highest concentration determines EQI)
What are the five air pollutants of the AQI?
Ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates, nitrogen dioxide
What is the scale of the AQI?
0-500 0=good 500=really bad, above 100 it starts to pose health threats
What are the major contributors to Air Pollution in the WA
V⬢Traffic is a major contributor
⬢Some small amount is due to Trees
⬢Boats contribute a lot to PS air pollution
What is the pollution from trees called?
Volitile Organics
Which pollutant is a secondary pollutant?
Which pollutant is a mixture?
What are the five basic types of ionizing radiation?
alpha, nuetron, beta, gamma, and X-ray.
What is different about an X-Ray?
It comes from an electron and is identical to a gamma ray, except orgin
Where does the ionizing radiation come from (not incuding X-rays)
the nucleus
List from highest to lowest frequencies the 5 types ionizing radiation
X-ray, gamma, beta, nuetron, and alpha.
Alpha rays are stopped by what?
Betas are stopped by what?
Gamma/X-rays are stopped by what
Lead...sometimes...some get through
How can you decrease radiation?
Radiation levels decrease as you move away from the source.
what are 3 Means to Reduce External Ionizing Radiation Exposure?
Time, Distance, Shielding
–Reducing the amount of time around a radiation source directly reduces radiation exposure.
–Distance reduces exposure by 1/r2for x-ray and gamma radiation
•Distance in air stops alpha and beta particles.
–Shielding stops alpha and beta particles and greatly reduces x-ray and gamma radiation.
What are the ANNUAL RADIATION DOSE LIMITS in occupation?
40.05 Sv (5 rem) whole body
4no individual organ dose
greater than 0.5 Sv (50 rem)
4Skin and extremities = 0.5 Sv (50 rem)
4Exception: Lens of eye = 0.15 Sv (15 rem)
What are theANNUAL RADIATION DOSE LIMITS for fetus/embryo
Embryo/Fetus (of radiation worker)
45 mSv (0.5 rem)
What is the ANNUAL RADIATION DOSE LIMITS of the general public?
General Public
41 mSv (0.1 rem)
What are some Acute Radiation Effects?
Skin Effects -reddening, depilation at over about 250 rem.
Damage to bone marrow or other internal organs –manifests at over 50 rem, death likely over 500 remto whole body.
Cataracts-10’s to a few 100 remto eyes
–Lung cancer from Radon
What are the health effects of Low Level Radiation?
Genetic mutations–probably takes 1 Sv(100 rem) to double mutation rate in man.
•Abnormalities induced in an exposed fetus–about 4% chance of occurrence per 0.1 Sv(10 rem)
•Cancer in the exposed individual–0.1 Sv(10 rem) given to 100 people in U.S. population would be expected to cause about 1 extra cancer over a lifetime. About 42 of these people would be expected to get cancer from natural causes.
What is the The EJ Movement?
Considered extension of the Civil Rights Movement􀃆EQUALITY!-Emphasis on protecting humans
Racism, classism, sexism, and other forms of oppression lead to unequal environmental burdens felt by people of color, low-income people, and women.
•Led by people of color/Grassroots
•Strength in numbers
•Egalitarian and consensus-driven
Two types of EJ?
Institutional EJ, and EJ community groups
Institutional EJ interpretations?
Institutional EJ interpretations
–Emphasizes environmental equity
–Principles are captured in the phrases, “Fair treatment and meaningfulinvolvement”
What do EJ community groups stress?
EJ community groups
–Stresses a history of environmental racism and collective autonomy
–Principles are captured in the credo, “We speak for ourselves”
What is this:
"Environmental Justice is thefair treatment
and meaningful involvement of all people
regardless of race, color, national origin, or
income with respect to thedevelopment,
implementation, and enforcement of
Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) definition 2002
What does APEN stand for and where is it based?
Asian Pacific Environmental Network
(APEN)-San Francisco Bay Area
What does APEN believe?
⬢Environmental Justice is the rightto a decent, safe quality of life for people of all races, incomes and cultures in the environments where we live, work, play, learn and pray.
⬢Environmental Justice emphasizes accountability,democratic practices, equitable treatment andself-determination⬦ Environmental Justice provides a framework for communities of color to articulate the political, economic and social assumptions underlying why environmental racismand degradation happens and how it continues to be institutionally reinforced.
When and where was the “Beginning of the EJ movement”
1982 -Warren County, NC
–Rural, low-income African-American community
–Landfill that was to be used for disposal of PCBs
–Many civil disobedience demonstrations-500+ arrested
–Residents declared that it was “Environmental Racism”, which was coined by Reverend Benjamin Chavis
Who coined "Environmental Racism"?
Reverend Benjamin Chavis
What is "Cancer alley" and where is it located?
⬢Petrochemical industry (pesticides, gasoline, paints, plastics) emitting billions of pounds of toxic chemicals
⬢Along 85-mile long corridor of Mississippi river from Baton Rouge to New Orleans
⬢1989-Morrisonville residents forced to re-locate after Dow Chemical Company voluntarily paid
Hurricane Katrina?
–“Worst envt’ldisaster in U.S. history.”
–”Toxic soup” that will make much of New Orleans inhabitable for years
What is CPBR?
Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) for EJ
What does CPBR do?
–Challenge to “expert-driven” scientific research that is not sufficient and full or uncertainty.
–Communities speak for themselves in research and decision-making
–Have local expertise-experience, contextual and local knowledge
–Primary focus is to produce research that can be used for locally relevant action-oriented solutions
Ways to Achieve Environmental Justice?
⬢Community mobilization and coalitions-strength in numbers
⬢Involve communities in the decision-making process for what happens in their neighborhood
⬢Use the current environmental laws, and make sure they are equally enforced in neighborhoods
⬢The Precautionary Principle Approach

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