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afp final



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treaty power
ability of president to negotiate treaty, with advice and consent of senate
good neighbor policy
fdr give $ to latin america instead of guns
world trade organization
evolution of the gatt, in charge of international trade
us ship captured in cambodia, ford sent war powers note but didn't consult congress before the operation
International monetary fund
created after wwii to deal with disequilibrium, deals with exchange rates, used to credit debtor states
operational dimension
skill displayed by battlefield commanders
powell doctrine
us forces used if national security threatened, clear objective, risks analyzed, non violent means exhausted, exit strategy, consequences considered, supported by america, supported by intl
political covert action
sponsor pro-western parties and associations
american exceptionalism
US views self as last hope of mankind since jefferson
preemptive defense
attacking an enemy before they can attack you
economic covert action
provide money to pro-western groups, interdict trade
rally around the flag
perceived threat or attack will lead to more support for president
nato forces intervene to stop genocide in balkans (early 90s)
executive agreement
prez bypass congress to enter diplomatic standing with another nation
National Security Council (NSC)
consists of president, VP, SecState, Secdef, CIA director, chairman of joint chiefs, and national security adviser
atlantic charter
fdr, churchill support for self determination, security, etc.
conventional weapons
all non nuclear technology (guns, bombs, tanks etc.)
basic human needs
views that human rights include food, health, etc.
Director of central intelligence
heads the CIA and supervises other intelligence organs
study and interpretation of processed data
soft power
notion that a nation's cultural appeal can attract support of other nations
the mole that recruits within an organization
war in afghanistan
US rock taliban, AQ, but not good at rebuilding
previous commitments
what prior presidents have gotten into
department of defense
responsible for military, in pentagon, very large bureaucracy
information warfare
new threat might be over the internet
national intelligence estimate
country-specific assesment of capabilities
international criminal court
has jurisdiction over war crimes, genocide, crimes against humanity,
american entry into wwI
unrestricted submarine warfare, zimmerman telegram went to war for human rights
get policymakers to pay attention to intelligence
statutory authority
congress authorize president with majority vote in both houses
one who leaves one country for another, usually with valuable secrets
president's daily brief
summary of intelligence for president
bureaucratic limits
bureaucracy is too big and inefficent to allow for swift decisionmaking
geographical isolation
contributed to american security because of weak neighbors, 2 oceans
legislative veto
where congress can veto actions
most favored nation rights
best trading relationship with a country, low tariffs etc.
free trade areas
remove trade barriers between countries
convince an enemy not to attack because of a devastating retaliation
covert action
secret action to influence international events
barbary war
US goes to war with tripoli, north african states bc of trade
gulf of tonkin resolution
allowed johnson to pursue war in vietnam as he saw fit, congress relinquished any oversight
US immigration and naturalization service v. chadha
SCOTUS found the legislative veto unconstitutional (1983)
US intervened to support president, 90s, caribbean
ballistic missile defense
preventing attack from icbms
war power
actual or threatened use of military force
free trade
removal of tariffs or other restrictions
criminal trials for rwanda and yugoslavia massacres
US did not do anything in civil war, criticized
limits on presidential power
international setting, information problems, time constraints, issues of permissibility, the availability of resources, and bureaucratic barriers
national commitments resolution
1969, called for greater consultatio between executive and legislative branches
if various sources of law allow president to act
G-8 summit
8 most powerful countries, canada france germany italy US UK Japan Russia
social dimension
political will of populace
intervention in russia
US troops in siberia to help monarchy, blunt japan
byrd-nunn reforms
advocated creation of legislative panel for consultation with executive branch prior to use of force, fallen into abeyance
legislative model
AFP decisions are left primarily to congress
nuclear winter
soot from war would block sun, causing extinction
moral suasion
high ideals such as democracy and human rights
international setting
events and conditions of the world are the largest limit, ie hostages in iran
attacking military weapons and facilities
democratic peace theory
democracies dont go to war with each other
dole amendment
required congressional approval prior to sending of troops proposed in 1990s, ignored
osama bin laden
leader of al qaeda, saudi businessman
bretton woods system
IMF, world bank, GATT, post wwii
Nongovernmental organizations
intl organizations without ties to governments (olympics, catholic church)
available resources
amount of $ needed vs. allowed by taxpayers
mutually assured destruction
an aggressor state would not strike first if it could be destroyed in a retaliatory response
free trade areas
areas with no internal tariffs
constitutional balance model
cooperation between coequal branches in AFP
department of homeland security
new department created after 9/11, very large, unwieldy, supposed to streamline national security
asymmetric strategies
used by guerrilas, not direct engagement,
US continue to bomb throughout 90s
indian and pakistani nuclear tests
new countries with nuclear weapons, haven't signed NPT, tested in 90s
CNN effect
bloodiness of war comes to peoples livign rooms, turns opinion against the war
sovereignty and human rights
what can intl body do about human rights if doesnt want sovereingty to be violated
Asia pacific economic cooperation agreement
APEC, FTA with most of asia, us probably won't ratify
NSA and other agencies translate the raw data into an explanation
concurrent resolution
simple majority vote in both chambers without presidential veto
legislative oversight
review of executive branch programs by lawmakers
prohibitions on imports from a country
intelligence gathered by technology
opinion leadership
public will rally when citizens have incomplete information that supports the president (mayaguez)
electromagnetic pulses
causes electronics to stop functioning
north american free trade area
reasons to use military force
national security, protecting $, acquiring territory, defending international law/human rights, peacekeeping missions
roles of national security adviser
administrator is mostly a caretaker, does not do too much, insurgents take lots of power and operate even without the president sometime, and counselor role is the middle
us intervention in somalia
originally humanitarian then to get rid of aideed
international anti-terror coalition
supported war on terror, pakistan, uzbekistan, allow for flights and bases
program by fbi to spy on civil rights leaders, protestors
nuclear triad
ICBMs, SLBMs, and bombers
multinational corporations
firms with presence in many countries
what groups/nations to surveil
knowledge of the world around us
radical religions
islam a growing threat to US
roosevelt corollary
US will intervene in latin america to civilze caribbean
various groups within the foreign policy establishment plot against each other to keep their jobs even more than dealing with soviet union
strategic nuclear weapons
able to attack enemy from afar with nuclear weapons (ICBM, SLBM, bomber)
lend-lease agreement
fdr lend british destroyers in exchange for leasing naval bases, did not consent congress
biological weapons
use of living toxins to kill large amouts of people (anthrax, smallpox, plague)
foreign aid
economic assistance to other states
fast-track legislation
approval by congress of treaties without amendments
pearl harbor
japan attack US territory
rogue states
iran, north korea, outside the norm for the world, threat to US
world bank
provide long term loans to rebuild europe, later shifted to develop impoverished nations
logistical dimension
military capacity (rifles, trucks, etc.)
assassination option
termination of a leader with various aspects
narrow definition of human rights
US restricts concept to politilca and legal rights
tariffs and barriers to protect US industry
foreign aid
money to other governments (carrot)
cultural exceptionalism
view that human rights are culturally determined
helsinki accords
declaration of principles for sovereignty, rights, more cooperation between east and west (ford, 1975)
judiciary in AFP
has usually upheld executive over legislative, against executive in pentagon papers
zone of hostilities
text in war powers resolution, no real definition of hostilities
information problems
presidents don't have full knowledge of what is occuring in the time
reagan doctrine
covert assistance for anticommunist forces around the world
fighting espionage from other countries
currency intervention
countries can affect currency via imf, devaluing it as necessary
covert propaganda
cia infiltrate media, drop leaflets, etc.
free trade area of the americas
all of western hemisphere free trade area
anti-imperialist league
group against empire
department of state
responsible for diplomacy, ambassadors, in foggy bottom
cooper-church amendment
force withdrawal of US forces from incursion in cambodia
nuremburg and tokyo tribunals
germ, japs tried with war crimes, following orders is not a defense and individuals can be held responsible for war crimes
joint chiefs of staff
principal military advisers to the president, one from each service branch
military strategy
over use to achieve foreign policy goals (multiple dimensions)
nuclear threat
many countries have large stockpiles of nuclear weapons
how much gamma radiation energy is absorbed by a person
tactical nuclear weapons
theater based weapons, smaller yield than strategic weapons
chemical weapons
use of nonliving toxins to kill large amounts of people (sarin, ricin, mustard)
state sponsored terrorism
terrorism funded and trained by states
time constraints
time limits how quickly a president can act
boland amendments
1980s, curbed covert action in nicaragua by executive branch
intergovernmental organizations
intl organizations tied to governments (UN, nato, etc.)
wanted independence, started getting massacred, NATO/us bomb
lebanon emergency aassistance act
congress allowed reagan to keep troops in lebanon
universal human rights
everyone has the exact same rights around the world
clash of civilizations
huntington belived that world delineated into various sectors, clash along cultural lines
great white fleet
signal of american power around the world
strategic defense initiative (star wars)
reagan's attempt to have laser based ballistic missile defense
personal representative of the president to a foreign country
weinberger doctrine
US forces should be used if long term support available, clearly defiend objetives, and clear intent of winning
absorbtion of intelligence
official development assistance
sponsored official loan to developing countries
power elite
generals, CEOs, and politicians that are a barrier to presidential preferences
paramilitary operations
anything from assassinations to secret warfare
spanish-american war
us goes to war against spain for territory
preemptive defense
attack before you are attacked, bush doctrine
reciprocal trade agreements act
congress gave fdr authority to reduce tariffs reciprocally
usa patriot act
expanded capabilities of law enforcement, fewer civil liberties
demilitarization of the american-canadian border
no more hostile britain in the north
interventions in the caribbean, central america, and mexico
us intervene in latin america because of political, economic, security reasons
intelligence to please
massage data to please those at the top
(subgovernments or) iron triangles
bureaucracies within branches between bureaucrats, lawmakers, and lobbyists
iraq war
US attack preemptively in 2003 because of wmds
ground-based interceptor
part of ballistic missile defense, fires at incoming missiles to destroy them
intelligence gathered by people
reporting requirements
mandates a report to congress on every important covert action intervention
proliferation of weapons
automatic weapons increasing across the world
communication with other governments to settle disputes
presidential model
global decisions are left exclusively to the president (imperial presidency)
(commission on national security in the 21st century) hart-rudman commission
attempt to redefine natoinal security goals, recommended homeland security, 1998
general agreement on tariffs and trade
global group that would lower tariffs, bretton woods
war on terror
US deployed around the world to fight terrorists
dawes plan
encourage american investors to loan germany $ to pay reparations
al qaeda
islamic fundamentalist terrorist group
model treaty
1776 stress commercialism in treaties
universal declaration of human rights
UN's statement listing human rights
hard power
military and economic inducements/threats
interest or pressure groups
groups with an interest that tries to influence afp (corporations, think tanks, unions, etc)
prohibitions on exports to a country
weapons technology
difference in quality of arms
war powers resolution
place obstacles in the way of president to commit forces, requires president to notify when forces are committed, and sets up 60 day timetable for return without authorization
weapons of mass destruction
nuclear, biological, and chemical arms
attacking industrial and communication centers
european geopolitical competition
europe was at war with itself, didn't let europeans attack us
arms control
us policy to contain WMD
hughes-ryan amendment
1977 act required president to approve covert actions through an official white house endorsement, also required notification of congressional committees
joint resolution
majority vote in both chambers subject to presidential veto
intelligence cycle
planning, collection, procession, production, dissemination

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