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APUSH Chapter 36 (Unit 13)

Terms

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Harry Hopkins
Head of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration
Glass Steagall Banking Reform Act
Passed in 1933 by the "hundred days congress", took the 750 million dollars of gold kept in US reserves and made it available for the creation of loans.
Alfred M. Landon
Nominated for the Republican party to run against FDR in 1936. He was the Governor of Kansas and ran a really weak campaign that included his really weak radio speeches. He criticized FDR's spending but favored a lot of the New Deal.
Soil Conservation and Domestic Allottment Act
Created in 1936, it paid farmers to plat soil-conserving plants (like soybeans) or let their land lie fallow.
20th Amendment
Cut the lame-duck period down to 6 weeks so that FDR began his second term a month and a half early.
Dust Bowl
After a drought in 1933, winds swept up the thick layer of dusty soil, left because of mineral leeching crops, and spread the dust through thick storms across Missouri, Texas, Kansas, Arkansas, and Oklahoma. The Dust Bowl forced many farmers to migrate west in order to leave their dust filled homes and find jobs, displayed in The Grapes of Wrath
Indian Reorginization Act
Created in 1934, the Indian "New Deal" encouraged tribes to preserve their culture and traditions.
Dr. Francis Townsend
The californian created a plan in which senior citizens recieved $200 per month, provided that the money would be all spent in that month, and his plan was wildly popular and was similar to the Social Security Act.
Father Charles Coughlin
A Catholic priest from Michigan who was critical of FDR on his radio show. His radio show morphed into being severly against Jews during WWII and he was eventually kicked off the air, however before his fascist (?) rants, he was wildly popular among those who opposed FDR's New Deal.
John L. Lewis
The boss of the United Mine Workers, he decided to created the Committee for Insutrial Organization in 1935. His newly created committee is still around today, therefore was extremely successful.
21st Amendment
Repealed Prohibition
Huey P. Long
Senator of Louisiana, who's "Share Our Wealth" plan would give families $5000, was socialist and was later assassinated.
Second Agricultural Adjustment Act
Created in 1938, it ws a more comprehensive substitute that was accepted by the Supreme Court.
Frances Perkins
First woman cabinet member as Secretary of Labour to FDR (?)
Works Progress Administration
Created in 1935, it put $11 million into public buildings, bridges, and roads, and it also gave 9 million people jobs. it found part time jobs for high school and college students, actors, musicians, and writers.
Home Owners Loan Corporation
Refinanced mortgages on non-farm homes and enforced middle class payments of their mortgages.
Social Security Act
Created in 1935, it created pension and insurance for senior citizens, the blind, handicapped, deliquent children, and etc. Republicans did not approve of the act.
Resettlement Administration
Created in 1935, it moved the farmers who were about to lose their homes due to lack of mortgage paying, to better land.
Wagner Act
Created in 1935, it took place of the NRA and protected the rights of workers in Labor Unions. The act allowed people in unions to collectively bargain and take part in strikes.
Eleanor Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt's wife who became his political partner after FDR was striken with Polio in 1921. She was one of the first active first ladies who compares to Hilary Clinton. She traveled across America during the Great Depression in order to experience the effects of the Great Depression first hand.
Emergency Banking Act
Passed in 1933, created a plan that would close down insolvent banks and reorganize and reopen banks that were strong enough to survive
Federal Housing Administration
Set up by FDR in 1934, it gave small loans to householders in order to stimulate the building industry.
National Recovery Administration
It was designed to assist industry, labor, and the unemployed. The administration made a maximum amount of hours of labor, minimum wages, and gave labor union members the right to choose their own representatives.
Tennessee Valley Authority
In 1933, America's government constructed dams on the Tennessee River in order to improve the lives of millions of poor citizens that would not afford electricity, instead the dams turned the water power into hydroelectricity. The dams also decreased America's spending on electricity and made the energy insutry public rather than being owned by private companies.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
5th cousin of Theodore Roosevelt and was striken with Polio in 1921. He was previously the governor of New York. Criticized because of his packing of the Supreme Court and his excessive spending on the American people during the Great Depression.
The American Liberty League
In 1934, it was formerd by conservative Democrats and wealthy republicans who all wanted to fight the "socialist" New Deal legislation.
Fireside Chats
The informal radio talks President Franklin Delano Roosevelt had with Americans during the Great Depression. They not only unified America with these nationwide speeches, but he roses American spirits by encouraging Americans through the Great Depression. FDR was the first president to effectively use the radio for politics. These talks occurred at least once a month, maybe even more frequently
Agricultural Adjustment Act
Created in 1933, the AAA made millions of dollars available to American farmers to be used for their mortages. Made the Agricultural Adjustment Administration.
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
Congress created the Administration which paid farmers to reduce their crop acreage which would increase crops prices. In the beginning, the administration killed much livestock without reason, and paying farmers to not plant only increased unemployment. Ruled "unconstitutional" in 1936 by the Supreme Court.
Securities and Exchange Commission
Created in 1934, it overlooked the stock market by making sure the stock market was run more as trading marts and less as a casino.
Public Works Administration
Created for both industrial recovery and for unemployment relief. Headed by the Secretary of Interior Harold L. Ickes, it aimed at long-range recovery and spent $4 billion on thousands of projects that included public buildings, highways, and parkways.
Court-Packing Scheme
FDR attempted to pack the Supreme Court with more liberal justices because FDR and the congress passed many Alphabet Soup Acts which the Supreme Court severly disagreed with. Although his Sceme did not work, it showed that American's did not want the age old justice system to be tampered with.
Federal Emergency Relief Act
Created the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, it focused on immediate relief. Headed by Harry Hopkins
Civilian Conservation Corps
Created by FDR, which provided employment to young men with jobs such as working in state parks, being fire fighters, draining swamps, and controlling floods.
Committee for Industrial Organization
Created in 1935, is was first within the ranks of the AF of L. The Committe was former by John L. Lweis who created the Committee. The Committee for Industrial Organisation was renamed to the Congress of Industrial organizations in 1938.
The 3 Rs
Relief of American people, Recovery of America's economy, and Reform of America's government
Civil Works Administration
Created in 1933, it was designed to make temporary jobs during the witner crisis of the Great Depression.
US Housing Authority
Created in 1937, it lent money to cities and communities for low-cost construction. Still in use today.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
Created by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, insured individual deposits up to $5000, thereby decreasing the amount of bank failures and restored faith in the banks.

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