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History Final


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Battle of the Bulge
Fought December 16, 1944; Germans final desperate bid to break the Allies; Germans attacked with 2 armies hoping to take Antwerp (the main Allied base)
Sod houses
generally associated with plains farmers
Charles Lindbergh
Made first solo nonstop flight from New York to Paris
John Maynard Keynes
English economist who favored increased federal spending to stimulate the economy
Ida B. Wells-Barnett
Helped organize National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Gentleman's Agreement
Restricted Japanese immigration
Chiang Kai-Shek
A former US ally driven from power in China and banished to Taiwan
The election of a Roman Catholic President
DID NOT take place during the " Roaring '20s' "
Bernard Montgomery
Led Allied forces in North Africa
Henry Ford
American industrialist who sent a "peace ship" to Europe to end the war
The First Battle of Bull Run
Southern victory
Confederate prison camp
15th Amendment
Gave African-American males the right to vote
Henry Ford
Bold use of the Assembly line in his factories can credit to...
New York City
Home of the politically corrupt Tweed Ring
Andrew Mellon
Hoover's Secretary of the Treasury, who favored taking no government action to end the depression
Admiral Yamamoto
Japanese general that fought at Midway against Nimitz
Syngman Rhee
Imprisoned by the Japanese, then came to America and studied at Harbard and Princeton; Struggled for Korean freedom for 50 years and was elected president of South Korea
Battle of Coral Sea
Fought on May 7-8 1942; Caused heavy losses on both sides; Japanese won a tactical victory because they sank US carrier Lexington; Americans claimed a strategic victory by stopping Japan's drive towards Australia
Jane Addams
Established the Hull House
The huge numbers of Irish and German immigrants in the US
America tended to favor the Allies except this
Minimum wage laws
Accomplishment of the New Deal
Nuremberg trials
500,000 German soldiers punished for war crimes
Tenure of Office Act
Act that Johnson had violated that became the main charge in his impeachment
Security Council
Had 11 (later 15) members; Of these the Big 5 (US, Britain, Russia, France, China) had permanent seats and the righ tto a veto; The other 6 members were elceted to 2 year terms and had no veto.
Trent Affair
The incident in which a Union warship stopped a British steamer and removed two Confederate diplomats
Martin Luther King Jr
Born in Atlanta in 1929. Son of a minister. Attended Morehouse College and recieved a doctor's degree in theology from Boston University. Started the black civil rights movement. Also gave the "I Have A Dream" speech
Intercepted German messages by radar and helped British prepare for air attacks
Theodore Roosevelt
Responsible for the "Gentleman's Agreement"
Zimmermann Note
German message, intercepted by the British, proposing an alliance with Mexico
Hull House, Tenement House, Dumbell Building
All places to help the immigrants or the poor (3 things)
Thomas Edison
Nicknamed the wizard; was a great inventor; developed electric light
Seeking a single decisive battlefield victory to cutting off enemy supply lines
Between the first Battle of Bull Run and the Battle of Petersburg, Union Army strategy changed from...
McCarran Act
Stated that all communist organizations had to register with the Attorney General
Munich Pact
Signed in 1938 between Great Britain, Gemany, and France that gave part of Czechoslovakia to Germany; Chamberlain said it guaranteed "peace in our time"
General John J. Pershing
On the Southern front, the Americans advance against Germany was led by...
Marshall Plan
Idea to help Europe with substantial gifts to prevent economic, social, and political problems and to provide monetary aid to prevent hunger, poverty, and chaos
Spoils system
Process of hiring and appointing new people to governemtn jobs with every change of administration, by rewarding party loyalty
British liner sunk by Germany without warning, killing 128 Americans
Did not have aid from Britain and France; disadvantage
Black Tuesday
New York Stock Exchange's worst day
Justin Morrill
established land-grant colleges
19th Amendment
Women were granted the right to vote with the ratification of the...
Radical Reconstructions policies
resulted in delays in the readmittance of Southern states into the Union, black Southerers gaining political experience, and creation of programs to assist former slaves
The agricultural system in which a family cultivated land it did not own, keeping a small part of whatever was grown and paying the rest as rent
21st Amendment
ended prohibition
Matthew Ridgway
Commanded the 8th Army in Korea; Told not to provoke a war in China
Enrico Fermi
Italian scientist who assisted Einstein in the production of the atomic bomb; First to say that the atomic bomb was possible
Taft-Hartley Act
Aimed to achieve a better balance between labor & management
Schechter v. US
Supreme Court declared that the NRA was unconstitutional
freedom of speech, press, assembly
Curtailed during the war
Wounded Knee
Place in South Dakota where 200 unarmed Native Americans were killed in 1890
A.M. Patch
Joined the eastward moving Allied troops
1862 Homestead Act
Provided a 160-acre plot to anyone over 21 years of age
Border state that Lincoln kept with the Union, thereby saving Washington, DC
Lincoln called for troops to put down an insurrection
The states of the upper South seceded when...
Selective Service Act of 1917
Provided for the registration of men between ages 21 and 31 for the draft
Albert Einstein
German scientist who made the atomic bomb
Archduke Francis Ferdinand
WWI was precipitated by the assassination of...
Douglas MacArthur
Led American ground troops in the Pacific
Harry Truman
Sworn as President of US after Roosevelt died due to a stroke
Morrill Act
Granted lands to the states from the public domain to support new state colleges
Hideki Tojo
Japanese leader; Had a warlike government
Thomas Nast
A cartoonist who helped expose the Tweed Ring
Kellogg-Briand Pact
In 1928 a renunciation of war was signed in Paris in the...
Dawes Act
Law aimed at "Americanizing" the Indian
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Led Allied forces in Western Europe
Toynbee Hall
Settlement House in London visited by Jane Addams
George Patton
Struck hard at the Germans; Thousands of his tanks were pouring through
Truman Doctrine
Stated that it must be the policy of the US to support free peoples who are resisting subjection or outside pressure to let them work out their problems in their own way; Also becomes a guide to foreign policy for generations
Dean Acheson
Revised a program of military and economic aid for Greece
Fair Deal
Truman sent bills to Congress; Most were extensions of the New Deal and for better civil rights laws
Freedmen's Bureau
The government agency established at the end of the Civil War to help emancipated slaves
Atlantic Pact
Established the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) which allied the US and Canada with 10 Western European nations
Ku Klux Klan
Terrorist organizationg that discouraged African-Americans from voting
Sherman Anti-trust Act
Passed in July 1890 to outlaw big business from forming monopolies and help farmers and small business
Joseph McCarthy
Republican Senator from Wisconsin, who in speech given on February 9, 1950 in WV claimed that the US State Department was infested with communists
Standard Oil Company
Rockefeller's first and most famous trust company
Neville Chamberlain
Prime Minister before Churchill
Wagner Act
Often viewed as "Labor's Magna Carta"; Guarenteed workers the right to join a union and to bargain as a group
Credit Mobilier
Government scandal involving the building of the transcontinental railroad
George Kennan
US minister-counselor in Moscow that warned about Russian communist intentions to take over the world
Austria-Hungary declaring war against Serbia
First declaration of war involved...
American fears that Germany would help Mexico
WAS NOT a main reason why the US entered the war
18th Amendment
Prohibition became law in 1919 with ratification of the...
Frances Willard
Worked for women's suffrage as President of the Women's Temperance Union
22nd Amendment
Limited any President after Harry Truman to 2 terms; Ratified by the required 3/4 of the states by Feb. 1951
national concern shifted to overseas aggression
New Deal came to an end in 1938 because...
Booker T Washington
Founded the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama
Homestead Act
Provided free land to settlers who were willing to live on it and cultivate it
the Black Hills of South Dakota and the Oklahoma Territory
What areas did the government promise to th Native Americans, then take away when settlers moved in?
Glass-Steagall Act
Reformed the banking system
Hawley-Smooth Tariff Act
Duties were boosted on a thousand items in the 1930s
Does NOT explain the outbreak of WWI
Ulysses S Grant
Commander of the Union army who was nicknamed "Unconditional Surrender"
Rosa Parks
A black seamstress; On Dec 1, 1955 while on her way back home from work, she boarded a crowded bus in Montgomery, AL; She took a seat in the front row of the section of the bus reserved for blacks. She was told to give up her seat for a white man and move farther back in the bus, but refused. Police arrested her for violating the law
George Stephenson
English railroad inventor of Standard Gauge
Development of ironclad ships
Accomplished by both the Union and the Confederacy
Plessy v Ferguson
Decision that permitted segreated facilities
Benito Mussolini
Italian leader, who on April 28, 1945 was captured, tortured, and hung upside down in Italy
Charles Lindbergh
Made a national hero because of his solo flight over the Atlantic in 1927
"Iron curtain"
Churchill said that it descended across the continent when Russia retained its hold over the Baltic republics (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania)
Fear of being required to get involved in future European wars
Major reason for American opposition to the League of Nations
JP Morgan
Known as the giant of finance
Lightning war; Hitler's war strategy
Chief Joseph
The Native American leader who attempted to lead his people to Canada from Oregon
Berlin Blockade
On June 2, 1948 Russia banned all traffic between the western zone and Berlin
CSS Virginia (Merrimac) and the USS Monitor
Historic sea battle that marked the end of navies using wooden ships was fought on March 8, 1942 between the...
John Wilkes Booth
Assassinated Abraham Lincoln
Neutrality Laws
Laws in which their purpose was to increase neutrality among countries; Many acts were passed
Gilded Age
Period in American History often defined as a time where glitter covered a multitude of sins
Mein Kampf
Book that Hitler wrote while in prison that became the Nazi bible
Employment Act 1946
Help provide peacetime jobs
National Security Act
Placed all the armed forces under a new Cabinet department with a civilian Secretary of Defense
Jefferson Davis
Confederate president
Battle of Midway
Fought on June 4, 1942; US handed Japan its first great naval defeat; Americans were ready because of "Magic" decoder; Resulted in Japanses abandoning their plans for taking Midway, Fiji, and Samoa
Cold War
Struggle between Communism and Capitalist nations
Pools, trusts, price fixing
Were all techniques that were used in organizing business to restric competition (3 things)
13th Amendment
Abolished slavery throughout the United States
John D Rockefeller
Donated money to the establishment of the University of Chicago
Appomattox Court House
Site of the Confederate surrender in 1865
Erwin Rommel
Led German and Italian forces in North Africa; "Desert Fox"
Development of new weapons
Reason why WWI was the bloodiest war in history
Benjamin Silliman
Yale professor of chemistry, hired by George Bissell to find out what else rock oil might be good for
A.C. McAuliffe
Commanded the 101st Airborne Division in the Battle of the Bulge at Bastogne; Surrounded by Germans and said "Nuts!"
Securities and Exchange Commission
Congress set this up in 1934 to regulate the stock market and to prevent abuses by sellers of stocks and bonds
Andrew Johnson
Only United States President to be impeached
Social Security Act
Provided for income to the elderly, public assistance to certain needy persons, and unemployment insurance
Henry Cabot Lodge
headed Senate oppostition to the United States joining the League of Nations with William Borah
Native Americans
Were forced onto small reservations and treated as wards of the government by 1890
Matthew Brady
Took pictures of scenes from the Civil War
jazz, ragtime, blues, speakeasies, flappers
Characterized the Roaring 20s
Temperance Movement
Abstinence from alcohol to protect the home and Christian life
The act of talking endlessly to delay the vote on Senate bills
GI Bill of Rights
Provided hospitals for the sick and wounded and clinics to help the disables; Offered payments to veterans without jobs; Gave them preference for jobs in the federal civil service
George H. Bissell
Founder of Pennsylvania Rock Oil Comapny
Former slaves
could attend school and could marry of their own free will and raise families by 1890
Admiral Nimitz
Took part in the Battle of Midway against Yamamoto
Andrew Carnegie
Scottish immigrant and responsible for the American library system
Atomic Energy Commission
Created a monopoly for the Federal government's control of fissionable materials (Uranium and Plutonium)
Josef Stalin
Russian leader
W.E.B. Du Bois
Organized the Niagra Movement
A share of a company's profits paid to stockholders
The Bay of Pigs
In 1960 Eisenhower had approved a plan proposed by Allen Dulles. The US would supply money and arms in Guatemala for a force of anti-Castro Cubans. The force was trained and ready. Kennedy expected that when the force invaded Cuba, the Cubans would seize the chance to overthrow Castro, so Kennedy gave his approval to invade. 1500 Cuban refugee fighters landed in the Bay of Pigs on the South Coast of Cuba on April 17. They were not greeted as expected
Maginot Line
French line along the border of Germany; French thought that no enemy could pierce this 350-mile line of tunnels, concrete forts, and antitank fields
Battle of Guadalcanal
Fought on August 7, 1942; Japanese advanced was finally stopped; fought more on land; nicknamed "Shoestring"
Adolf Hitler
Born an Austrian; Would rise from army corporal to the most destructive dictator of modern times; Creater of the Nazi party

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