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Public Health Test 2


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What are some commonalities in college population deaths
Greeks/Greek Events
High BAC
Friends don't take it seriously
Majority of college deaths attributed to what cause
Mortality prevention
Don't allow to sleep off
Don't leave alone
Walking and talking for two hours after stop drinking
Call 911(Don't drive to hospital w/o being told)
Populations with highest rates of drinking
Res halls
Why increase in DWI problems after DWI?
More cars
More miles driven
More alcohol use
Alcohol related vs. DWI
Alcohol related could be driver, passenger, or pedestrian
DWI is specific to driver---but both at .08
What level does impairment begin?
DWI Prevention Model: Agent Factors
Availability and strength of alcohol
Kinetic energy--moving energy--speeding
DWI Prevention Model: Person
Age, gender, race, SES, Driving experience and drinking experience
DWI Prevention Model: Environment
Time of day
Road and car safety
Legal Environment
Societal Attitude
Three E's of Safety
Education, enforcement, engineering
Dana's 4th E
economic incentive
Training bar servers
MADD--changing social norms
high school education on alcohol
Driver's education
stricter laws
willing to enforce
capacity to enforce
public acceptance
certainty of getting caught, swift, strict penalty, jail, newspaper, special plates
safer cars, roads, realistic public transportation, car breath test devices
Obstacles bars face in cutting people off
pressure to sell
concerns of lost gratuity
customer disputes
difficulty in determining level of intoxication
which e of safety is the most important?
Don't know!
Why is increase in perception of getting caught important?
increased media attention--scares people?
Where did urine testing begin? Where has it expanded?
Horse racing--expanded into sports, hiring for certain professions
Postive factors of urine testing
call tell if someone has used illicit drug
easy to screen lots of people
quick fix
no one objects unless they have someone to hide
Urine testing cons
doesn't test for alcohol
drugs with least danger found easier
95% accurate
doesn't measure dependency
personally invasive
where might we want to use urine testing?
probation in criminal situations
English Common law
civil law and criminal law
Civil law
case law-contracts, negligence, damgages
criminal law
drug laws commonly
criminal laws
What does uniformed controlled substances do?
put illegal drugs in schedules I through V
sets forth penalties
Marijuana laws
in MN petty misdemeanor
federal: felony
petty misdemeanor
fine, but no permanent record (not a crime)
look up
gross misdemeanor
look up
greatly affects one's ability to vote, obtain certain professional licenses, obtain housing
Driving while intoxicated, driving under the influence
alcohol or drugs, in ANY vehicle
charges increase with offenses
Can you still be charged if under the legal limit?
yes, depending on circumstance
DWI Zero tolerance for under 21
civil suspension of driver's license for 30 days---ANY amount of alcohol
implied consent
by accepting driver's license, you give permission for testing--based on civil law
one year loss of license-on separate offense, can be imposed even if later found not guilty of DWI
average total cost of DWI-why so high?
may be in excess of 50,000--why? fines, court fees, lawyers, treatment, insurance
Dram shop act
allows for civil recovery (civil law)---if hurt, can sue those who sold the alcohol, especially if sold without license, to a minor, to obviously intoxicated
crime classification for a minor caught drinking?
misdemeanor--$1,000 fine, up to 90 days in jail and a criminal record
21 year old drinking law
applies to consumption, purchasing, possession, entering establishment, furnishing to under 21s
crime classification to someone who provides alcohol to under 21
gross misdemeanor--3,000/one year
social host liability
21+ who served alcohol, or who had control of premises, injury or harm resulted to innocent person
Fake ID
misdem first offense, gross second offense, if you let someone use yours, misdem
who can parents provide alcohol to?
their OWN children in their OWN home, not to other children and not outside the home
what type of law is a noisy party
local law
what is a noisy party?
a gathering of one or more persons in a res area between hours of 10pm and 7am that produces noise that unreasonably disturbs the peace, quiet or repose of a person or persons of ordinary sensibility
fine for noisy party
up to 1,000 dollars up to 90 days
what type of law is the good samaritan law? what does it require?
civil law! provide reasonable care based on your training
who is required by law to report suspected abuse
professionals must report suspected abuse, other may report--report to Child protection services
minor consent act
applies to pregnany, abortions, STD's and alcohol drug use
confidentiality relationships
lawyer-client, priest-penitent, doctor-patient, husband-wife
legislation that is passed by a legislative body and signed by an exectutive
rules and regulations usually implemented by administrative units to support law. may be inititated by legislative and executive branches but interpreted by the courts
war on drugs
started with nixon, little positive effects, many negative effects
negative effects of war on drugs
minority imprisonment up to 35X, disenfrahchisement, cant rent housing
federal vs. states
generally, fed govt can't tell the states what to do unless an activity crosses state lines---STATE RIGHTS
feds blackmail
55 mph, 21 year old drinking age, .08-threaten to take away highway money
positive effect of 21 law
has been reduction in under 21 traffic fatalities
negative effect
may be related to increase in binge drinking
what can states localities do via policy
prohibit, monopolies, rationing, density of alcohol outlets, retail availability of specific beverages, regulation, hours and days of sales, miimum drinking ages, server training
liquor license
state gives counties and cities permission
harm reduction
efforts aimed at reducing the harmful effects of drugs on society
NOT a gateway to legalization
harm reduction based on what principles
humanism (people worthy of rights)
pragmatism (deal with reality of problem--people will always use drugs)
public health: how do you reduce harm if can't prevent
specific harm reduction principles
drug use is normal,
harms and benefits
cannot be eliminated altogether
harm may be reduced
many young people grow out of drug use
educate non judgemental
requires an open dialogue
respect rights
peer support
drug education under harm reduction
non judgemental, law and legal rights, how to reduce risks, where to get help
alcohol harm reduction
moderate drinking
heroin harm reducation
medical care, clean needles, food and shelter, offer treatment
smoking harm reduction
low tar cigarettes, restrict smoking in public areas
hiv harm reduction
needle exchange, does not increase drug use, decreses hiv infection
club drugs---new? what are they?
no, just more media attention lately--ecstasy, rohypnol, GHB, ketamine, methamphetamine, LSD
after 9/11
club drugs less pure
rohypnol last how long
8-12 hours
GHB lasts in body how long?
clears quickly
date rape, anterograde amnesia
CNS depressant, overdoes occurs quickly, impairs memory
reactions similar to PCP dream like states and hallucinations
serious health consequences
stimulant effects, followed by confusion, depression, sleep problems, anxiety
meth consequences
aggression, violence, psychotic behavior, cardiace neurological damage
why using ecstasy
lowering of tensions, love everyone, feel close to others-similar to LSD in 1960's--better communication, see things in a different light
where and who using ecstasy?
ravers, high school college, urban gay parties, therapy and self discovery
what neurotransmitter is affected by ecstasy?
serotonin depletion--significant because it's especially in neocortex and hippocampus--memory
harm reduction in club drugs
educate on avoiding harms--mixing
testing of pills at raves
plenty of free water, quiet rooms, first aid rooms, temperature,
bio factors from sexuality lecture
alcohol, stimulants, hallucinoens, maryj, steriods, meds, viagra, antihistamines, gender differences
behavioral factors
25-50% of sex involves intoxications, drunks do dumb things
social issues
date rape almost always involves intoxication, domestic violence, FAS, condom usage, birth control, chem dependency and sexual addictions
education issues
always discuss combination of alcohol, drugs, and sexuality
ohio MDMA study, gender diffs
decreased ejac, variable libido, not thinking of sex. women, varibale effect on orgasm, variable effect on lib, want sex while using
frequent intoxicators have higher rates of STI's

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