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UCO Nsg 1221-Intro to Nursing, Exam #1 (copy)


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open system
relatively free movement of information, matter, & energy into & out of the system
Roy health adaptation
a continuum
references & resources nursing related
CINAHL; Medline; Health Source; Natural Standard; American Journal of Nursing
good, reputable web sites have
information that is peer reviewed, author credentials, objective (no or little prejudice & bias), timliness, well-developed/professional presentation
Watson model (Univ of Colorado)
caring; philosophical approach; recognizes spirituality; gestalt client; must overcome environment; health - achieve full potential / harmony; nursing = science, goal to reach potential or curing treatment to eliminate disease. Values (all people are valuable); Caring (establish relationship of help & trust)
wholly compensatory
total care
metro area associate degree programs
nurse practice act importance
part of state law that establishes the scope of practice for professional nurses, as well as educational levels & standards, professional conduct, & reasons for revocation of licensure; helps protect public
F. Nightingale impact on nursing hx
raised the bar for education, health care & nursing standards; 1854 cholera epidemic & Crimean War nursing - mortality rate drop; Queen of England gave Order of Merit
Annie W. Goodrich
served with Wald; known as outstanding nursing educator; appointed as a state inspector of nursing schools; dean of army nursing school.
Pew Commission
part of inadequate estimate of projected nursing shortages by 2010; contained competencies nursing will need & professional education needs
ICN - International Council of Nurses
goal is to improve health & nursing care throughout the world
UCO Nursing conceptual framework: goal of the nurse
to aid man to reach an optimal state of health through adaptation to changes in his environments
metro area baccalaureate programs - accredited
technicians for whom it is more important how to do something rather than why it is being done
approaches to defining a profession
process, power, trait
UCO Nursing conceptual framework of curriculum components
critical thinking, research, communication, human development, nursing process, professionalism, & caring
how nursing theorists define the key concepts in theories
King = attainment; Roy = UCO based curriculum: adaptation; Orem = self-care
professional certification significance
demonstrates that an individual is qualified to provide safe care to the public; licensure is a type of legal _____________; is a granting of credentials to indicate that an individual has achieved a level of ability higher than the minimal level of competency indicated by licensure; acknowledges attainment of increased knowledge & skills-self-worth validation & competence
how to increase power in nursing
professional unity, political activity, accountability & professionalism, networking
types of advanced practice nurse practitioners
adult nurse practitioner; family nurse practitioner; gerontological nurse practitioner, pediatric nurse practitioner, acute care nurse practitioner, adult psychiatric and mental health nurse practitioner, family psychiatric & mental health practitioner; advanced diabetes mgmt- nurse practitioner
compare / contrast mission stmt of UCO & Dept of Nsg philosophy & conceptual framework
Nursing philosophy statement must be compatable with UCO mission statement. Philosophy: holistic being w/dignity & worth, individuals adapt (Roy), consumers participate in own health care; nurse should self-eval / professional growth; learning demonstrated by change in behavior; professional nursing education takes place in institution of higher learning
Past leaders of nursing
Florence Nightengale, Isabel Adams Hampton Robb, Lillian Wald, Lavinia Lloyd Dock, Annie Goodrich
institutional licensure
rejected by every major nursing organization; allows individual health-care institutions to determine which individuals are qualified to practice nursing within general guidelines est. by outside board; no standardization
nursing lit vs popular lit & how to evaluate information from internet
Evaluate by documentation including citations, content, authority, persuasiveness
Licensure purposes & needs
protects public / std basis of knowledge; must take exam; nurse practice act from each state regulates by state law; every other year you must renew
Roy environment adaption
concept of stimuli
how to increase power in nursing
professional unity, political activity, accountability & professionalism, networking
1965 ANA position paper
addressed nurses education should take place in institutions of highter education
UCO Dept of Nursing curriculum
Roy theorist of adaptation; conceptual framework is NLN evaluation tool
Roy client's adaptation MODES
physiological (uses internal physiological process), self-concept (developed by life experiences), role-function ( dependent on relative place in society), interdependence (how client relates to others)
legitimate power
depends on legislative or legal acts
coercive power
ability to punish, withhold rewards, threaten
AACN - American Association of Colleges of Nursing
est to help colleges & schools of nursing to improve std for higher education for professional nursing; developed std for accreditation
a group of jobs that are similar in type of work & that are usually found throughout an industry or work environment
mandatory licensure
requires anyone wishing to practice nursing to pass licensure exam & become registered by SBN. Forced SBNs to distinguish between the activities that nurses at different levels could legally perform; scope of practice defines practice boundries
junior year focus
caring for an individual client in a variety of clinical situations; lower # clinical hours
better staffing ratios lead to
better client care, decreased costs for insurance & malpractice law suits
senior course focus
more of caring for family & groups; increased # clinical hours
collective power
broader context than individual client care
ANA - American Nurses Association *
primarily concerned with quality of nursing practice in daily health care setting; all nurses are eligible to belong to this org; purpose is primarily legislative & to set standards
Roy nursing adaptation multistep process
is to aid & support client; assessment, analysis (ID problem/nursing diagnosis), setting goals (-> evaluation of whether goals have been met)
evidence-based practice
nursing in which interventions are based on data from research that demonstrates that they are appropriate & successful
systems theory
a viewpoint from general sociology; all parts of life are interlocking & overlapping "systems"; components which interact & affect each other; problems in 1 part of the system will affect all parts of the system
types of advanced nursing degrees (name at least 3)
masters degree ladder program of ADN-to-MSN receiving a BSN then MSN, NP-to-MSN program, Master's degree (considered a specialist's degree: MSN = master's of science in nursing is the professional degree, & the MS Nursing is the formal academic degree), doctoral programs - PhD / research or the EdD / education or administration in the educational setting, DNSc, DSN, DN, ND, DNEd
Types of advanced practice for nurses
nurse practitioners & clinical specialists
reward power
depends on ability to grant ______/specific behavior change
historical development of nursing
convents & monasteries (religious orders), military nursing orders, nursing religious orders, industrial revolution had early community health, colonial era untrained volunteers (ie poorly educated & poorly trained)
types of advanced practice clinical specialists
clinical specialists (cs) in adult psychiatric & mental health nursing, cs in child/adolescent psychiatric mental health nursing, cs in gerontological nursing, cs in medical-surgical nursing, cs in home health nursing, cs in pediatric nursing, cs in community health, advanced diabetes management cs
Orem model
self-care; own responsibility; client has capacity for self-care; health deficit from inability to carry out key (6) health care activities (to maintain health &/or health deviation self-care), environment is negative medium/conduct daily activities; nursing levels of wholly compensated, partially compensated, supportive developmental care; 3 step nursing care of assess, determine care plan, & provide indicated care (5 methods)
3 hours clinical practicm
= one credit hour
trait - approach to defining a profession
accountability; autonomy; had code of ethics; specialized knowledge; demonstrates competency via licensure
UCO Nursing curriculum requirements
49 hours general education, 17 - 21 hours of pre-professional, 56 credits in nursing, total hours = 124
an activity conducted by the state through the enforcement powers of its regulatory boards to protect the public's health, safety, & welfare by establishing professional standards; necessary to ensure everyone who claims to be a nurse can function at a minimal level of competency & safety
why are theories & models important to nursing profession?
to be a better nurse & provide better care to real people; systematic conceptualizations of nursing practice & how it fits into the health-care system; indicates a maturing of the profession
popular literature resources
InfoTrac, NewsBank
Sigma Theta Tau *
honorary organization to recognize individuals who show leadership or made important contributions to professional nursing; international scope; all nurses but membership by invitation only; upper level scholarly org; only for baccauleaurate; Beta Delta chapter here which includes 5 programs/schools
Roy environment stimuli
focal, contextual, residual
a group of positions that are similar in nature & level of skill that can be carried out by one or more individuals
doctorial degrees available to nurses
PhD - designed to prepare individual to conduct research, EdD - same as PhD or focus more on administration in the educational setting; DNSc - doctor of nursing science, DSN- DNEd
King Intervention Model Theory
goal attainment; client = open system that changes; environment = systems of personal, interpersonal, social, & external; health = dynamic process: interference = illness; nursing = dynamic interactions
closed system
prevents any movement into & out of the system; static & unchanging
referent power
involves close personal relationship
2 - 3 hours skills lab on campus
= 1 credit hour
Major differences between diploma, associate degree & bachelor of science in nursing educational programs
diploma - upon graduation given a certificate/diploma but no academic degree, usually all hands-on experience in the hospital where trained; associate degree nursing (ADN) - developed by M. Montague after WWII as a short-term solution to the nursing shortage, 2 year programs often at community colleges; baccalaureate - the professional degree = BSN (or an external degree), teh full academic degree = BS Nursing,or career ladder program
why has nursing failed to attain some traits of a profession
BS degree not required for licensure; autonomy & independence of practice lacking; subservient image; lack strong professional identity; considered job instead of career
a group of tasks assigned to one individual
UCO Nursing philosophy ENVIRONMENTS - lined up with Maslow's hierarchial of needs
physiological, ecological, sociocultural, psychological, spiritual/philosophical
NLN - National League for Nursing *
primary responsibility for regulating the quality of education programs that prepare nurses & is an accrediting agency (Accredation of school every 10 yrs); board has some nonnurses. State board accredits school each 5 yrs.
mandated staffing ratios
Calif. 1st state to approve effective Jan. 2004
UCO Nursing conceptual framework of health / illness
seen as a continuum that parallels adaptation-maladaptation continuum; health is synonymous w/adaptation, illness is synonymous w/maladaptation
What are power sources?
referent, expert, reward, coercive, legitimate, collective
concept of advanced practice for nurses
advanced practice as nurse practitioners or clinical specialists; specialty certification baccalaureate; specialty certification associate degree/diploma
process - approach to defining a profession
points of development along a continum; lacks criteria on which to base judgments
UCO Nursing Philosophy includes dept purpose of...
to prepare a generalist who functions as a beginning practitioner of professional nursing committed to continued learning & advancement of nursing
Lillian Wald
opened Henry Street Settlement health clinic in poor part of NYC. Organized nurses to make home visits, focusing on sanitary conditions & children's health. Social reformer. Advocated wellness education.1st president of Nat'l Org. of Public Health Nursing.
hypothetical representation of something that exists in reality; attempts to explain a complex reality in a systematic & organized manner
nursing organizations & importance
NLN, ANA, NSNA, Sigma Theta Tau, also ICN, AACN
nursing definition
ANA: _______ is the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury, alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response, and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations.
nurse practice act
controls the type of activities nurses may legally carry out when they perform advanced roles
partly compensatory
Orem - what pt can do for themselves they must do
UCO conceptual framework - nursing
critical thinking, research, communication, human development, nursing process, professionalism, caring
breadth of nursing opportunities
hospice, hospitals, clinics, schools, rehab, educatiors; many different opportunities that are interesting & rewarding within a hospital; private practice, public health agencies, home health care, primary nursing school-operated nursing centers, ambulatory care centers, insurance & managed care companies, education, research
problem - etiology - signs & symptoms (problem related to etiology as manifested by signs & symptoms)
4 parts of all systems
input, output, throughput & feedback loop
Isabel Adams Hampton Robb
teacher; Rome hospital superintendent; 1st director of nursing school that was university based; then John Hopkins Training School for Nurses. Brought nursing leaders together to form NLN. 1st president of group that became ANA. Developed American Journal of Nursing - official journal of ANA.
a type of occupation that meets certain criteria that raise it to a level above that of an occupation
power - approach to defining a profession
defined by independence of practice & how much ________ does this occupation control; political ______ & $$ person in that occupation earns
set of interrelated constructs (concepts, definitions, or propositions) that presents a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables with the purpose of explaining & predicting phenomena; a speculative statement involving some element of reality that has not been proved; attempts to explain apparent relationships between observed behaviors & effects on client's health
prescriptive authority
all states now have some type of this granted to nurse practitioners; legal right to write prescriptions for medications, granted to physicians, veterinarians, dentists, & advanced practice nurses
Nursing process
assessing, analyzing, planning, implementing, evaluation
UCO Nursing Conceptual Framework ENVIRONMENTS
physiological, ecological, sociocultural, psychological, spiritual/philosophical
peer reviewed literature
requires any manuscripts submitted to be reviewed by 2 or 3 professionals who are considered experts or at least knowledgeable in the subject matter; key element in ensuring accuracy of the information; look for clear statement of the source of information & how reviewed
traits of nursing as a profession
high intellectual level of functioning; high level of individual responsibility & accountability; specialized body of knowledge; evidence based practice; public service & altruistic activities; well organized & strong representation; code of ethics; competency & professional license
leading causes of attrition among nurses
burnout, poor working conditions`
expert power
from amount of knowledge, skill expertise; used or withheld
Roy theory
nursing process steps that are sequential but often overlapping
assessing; analyzing; planning; implementing; evaluating
various themes evident in nursing hx
society's beliefs about the causes of illness, the value placed on individual life, & the role of women in society; wars, influencing development of technology & direction of health care
characteristics of concept of power
how much independence of practice this occupation has; how much ______ this occupation controls; earned & political _____
What is power?
ability to exert influence over another person or group of persons
permissive licensure
allows individuals to practice nursing as long as they do not use the letters "RN" after name. Only protects the RN title but not the practice of nursing. Anyone could carry out the functions of an RN regardless of education, without a competency exam
theory 1 hour =
1 credit hour class
UCO Dept of Nursing application requirements & procedure
fee, OSBI, TEAs, 3 recommendations, transcript & evaluation of transcript
Lavinia Lloyd Dock
Wrote 1st medication textbook for nurses. Social reform limited due to being female. Lobbied legislators.
critical thinking
ability to use basic core knowledge & decision-making skills in deciding & resolving situations with a relatively small amount of data & a high degree of risk & ambiguity
supportive - educative system
education & emotional support
process that allows input to be changed so useful to system (text example: gasoline to car)
systems theory as important element in nursing theories or models
theory that stresses the interrelatedness of parts in any system in which a change in one part affects all other parts; often, the system is greater than the sum of its parts
4 key concepts found in nursing theories & models
Client, health, environment, nursing
Neuman health-care systems model
individual & environment focus; stress theory; holistic; boundaries of defense & resistance. Stressors. Primary intervention, secondary intervention & tertiary care. Used by community & public health (ie health depts); interactive, open system theory: what happens to 1 affects other persons in system
hallmarks of sound nursing theory or model
flexibility & adaptability to new discoveries; flexible, realistic, usable
10 trends that will affect health care
changing demographics & increasing cultural diversity, explosion of technology, economic & social globalization, better-educated consumers, the Genome Project, alternative health-care practices, & palliative care, increasingly complex health care & shift to population-based care, managed health care & out of control health care costs, governmental health-care regulations & policies, collaborative practice, nursing shortage, advances in nursing research

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