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teheran conference
December, 1943 - A meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace.
the checkers speech
given by Richard Nixon on September 23, 1952, when he was the Republican candidate for the Vice Presidency. The speech was broadcast nationwide from the El Capitan Theatre in Hollywood,[1] was one of the first political uses of television to appeal directly to the populace.( nixon asked for ppls forgiveness, bought his daughter checkers)
truman- Macarthur conflict
Truman removed MacArthur from command in Korea as punishment for MacArthur's public criticism of the U.S. government's handling of the war. Intended to confirm the American tradition of civilian control over the military, but Truman's decision was widely criticized.
the fair deal
Made by Truman in his 1949 message to Congress. It was a program that called for improved housing , full employment, higher minimum wage, better farm price supports, new TVA's, and the extension of social security. Its only successes: raised the minimum wage, better public housing, extended old-age insurance to more people.
Dwight eisenhower
Called "The Republican's Choice" along with his vice president Richard Nixon. He was the commander of the allied forces in Europe, the army chief-of-staff after the war, and the director of NATO for two years. Dwight displayed "grandfatherly good will". The night before the 1952 presidential elections, he declared that he would personally go to Korea and end the war. This helped to win the majority in 41 of the lower 48 states. Eisenhower reigned over a period of unstable peace and prosperity. He was elected to another term in 1956. The 1950's are remembered as an idealistic time; this is due largely to Dwight D.Eisenhower.
joseph mcCarthy
A Republican Senator from Wisconsin who was strongly against communism. McCarthy claimed there were many communists in the State Department. He did not have much evidence to support his accusations, and his search for communists was considered a type of "witch-hunt." When his lack of evidence was discovered, he was censored by Congress and lost his seat in Congress.
shelley v. kraemer
is a United States Supreme Court decision involving the enforceability of restrictive covenants which would prohibit a person from owning or occupying property on the basis of race. It is an important civil rights
38th parallel
The line dividing Korea into two sections, north of the the parallel the communist Soviet Union was in charge and south of the parallel was democratic America was in charge. This line would become the demilitarized zone after the Korean conflict.
the hollywood 10
is an American 16mm short documentary. In the short, each member of the Hollywood Ten made a short speech to denounce McCarthyism and the Hollywood Blacklisting.
mcCarran Internal security act
Required Communists to register and prohibited them from working for the government. Truman described it as a long step toward totalitarianism. Was a response to the onset of the Korean war.
dixiecrats/ strom thurmund
He was nominated for president on a States' Rights Party (Dixiecrats) in the 1948 election. Split southern Democrats from the party due to Truman's stand in favor of Civil Rights for African American. He only got 39 electoral votes.
truman doctrine
Truman wanted to prevent the spread of communism. He wanted it "contained". The first implementation of the Truman Doctrine was $400 million given to aid Greece and Turkey to prevent a communist takeover.
First drawn up in 1950, NSC-68, or National Security Council Memorandum Number 68, was buried until the Korean crisis later that year. This document suggested that the U.S. could afford to spend upward of 50% of its gross national product for security.
the UN
United Nations conference took place on April 25, 1945 --FDR died on April 12, but had chosen Republican and Democratic representatives to meet at the San Francisco War Memorial Opera House with representatives from 50 nations, fashioning a United Nations' charter similar to the old League of Nations covenant --- featured a Security Council dominated by the US, Britain, USSR, France, and China (the big 5 powers) who could veto, and an Assembly that could be controlled by smaller countries --the UN's permanent home was in NY city.
yalta conference/ yalta accords
Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta to make final war plans, arrange the post-war fate of Germany, and discuss the proposal for creation of the United Nations as a successor to the League of Nations. They announced the decision to divide Germany into three post-war zones of occupation, although a fourth zone was later created for France. Russia also agreed to enter the war against Japan, in exchange for the Kuril Islands and half of the Sakhalin Peninsula.
klaus fuchs/ julius and ethel rosenberg
Fuchs, a young British scientist, testified that he had delivered to the Russians details of the manufacture of the atomic bomb. The Rosenbergs were a couple in New York, members of the Communist Party, the government claimed that they had received information on the Manhattan Project and passed it on to the USSR through other agents, including Fuchs. The Rosenbergs were sentenced to death and after 2 years of appeals and protests they died in the electric chair.
economic cooperation administration
was a United States government agency set up in 1948 to administer the Marshall Plan. It reported to both the State Department and the Department of Commerce. The agency's head was Paul G. Hoffman, a former head of Studebaker. Much of the rest of the organization was also headed by major business figures. The ECA had an office in the capital of each of the sixteen countries participating in the Marshall Plan.
atomic energy commission/ h bomb
Created in 1946 to oversee the research and production of atomic power.
film noir
used primarily to describe stylish Hollywood crime dramas, particularly those that emphasize moral ambiguity and sexual motivation. Hollywood's classic film noir period is generally regarded as stretching from the early 1940s to the late 1950s. Film noir of this era is associated with a low-key black-and-white visual style that has roots in German Expressionist cinematography, while many of the prototypical stories and much of the attitude of classic noir derive from the hardboiled school of crime fiction that emerged in the United States during the Depression.
douglass mcarthur
He was the supreme allied commander during the Cold War in 1945. After World War II, MacArthur was put in charge of putting Japan back together. In the Korean War, he commanded the United Nations troops. He was later fired by Harry Truman for insubordination.
national housing act
was a landmark, sweeping expansion of the federal role in mortgage insurance and issuance and the construction of public housing. It was part of Harry Truman's program of domestic legislation, the Fair Deal.
the atlantic charter
This was created by Winston Churchill and President Franklin D. Roosevelt in a secret conference. It outlined the hopes of the democracies and their intentions for improvements after World War II; Renunciation of territorial aggression, No territorial changes without the consent of the peoples concerned, Restoration of sovereign rights and self-government, Access to raw material for all nations, World economic cooperation, Freedom from fear and want, Freedom of the seas, Disarmament of aggressors.
adlai stevenson
The Democratic candidate who ran against Eisenhower in 1952. His intellectual speeches earned him and his supporters the term "eggheads". Lost to Eisenhower.
the twilight zone
is an American television anthology series created (and often written) by its narrator and host Rod Serling. Each episode (156 in the original series) is a mixture of self-contained fantasy, science fiction, or horror story, often concluding with an eerie or unexpected twist.
NATO) Military alliance between the US, Canada and 10 European nations signed on April 4, 1949. It was committed to building military defense of Europe against Communist Russia. Dwight D.Eisenhower became the Supreme Commander of NATO.
containment/ george keenan
A member of the State Department, he felt that the best way to keep Communism out of Europe was to confront the Russians wherever they tried to spread their power.(expert on soviet affairs)
taft- hartey act
1947) It outlawed the "closed" shop, made unions liable for damages that resulted from jurisdictional disputes among themselves, and required union leaders to take a non-Communist oath.
j. edgar hoover
was the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States. He founded the present form of the agency, and remained director for 48 years until his death. During his life, Hoover was highly regarded by much of the U.S. public. Hoover's leadership spanned eight presidential administrations, encompassed Prohibition, the Great Depression, World War II, the Korean War, the Cold War, and the Vietnam War. During this time, the United States moved from being a rural nation with strong isolationist tendencies to an urbanized superpower.
national security act of `47/ CIA
Passed by Congress in 1947 and it created the Department of Defense. It also established a National Security Council (NSC) to advise the president on security matters and a Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to coordinate the government foreign fact-gathering.
richard nixon
He was a committee member of the House of Representatives, Committee on Un-American Activities (to investigate "subversion"). He tried to catch Alger Hiss who was accused of being a communist agent in the 1930's. This brought Nixon to the attention of the American public. In 1956 he was Eisenhower's Vice-President.
alger hiss/ whittaker chambers/ pumpkin papers
high-ranking member of the State Department, in 1948, Whittaker Chambers a former communist agent told the HUAC that Hiss had passed classified State Department documents to him in 1937 and 38. When Hiss sued him for slander Chamber produced microfilms of the documents (pumpkin papers- Chambers kept them hidden in a pumpkin). The statute of limitations prevented Hiss from being tried for espionage.
the korean war
After WWII, Korea had been partitioned along the 38th parallel into a northern zone governed by the Soviet Union, and a southern zone controlled by the U.S. In 1950, after the Russians had withdrawn, leaving a communist government in the North, the North invaded the South. The U.N. raised an international army led by the U.S. to stop the North. It was the first use of U.N. military forces to enforce international peace. Called a limited war, because the fighting was to be confined solely to the Korean peninsula, rather than the countries involved on each side attacking one another directly.
house un american activities committee
Committee in the House of Representatives founded on a temporary basis in 1938 to monitor activities of foreign agents. Made a standing committee in 1945. During World War II it investigated pro-fascist groups, but after the war it turned to investigating alleged communists. From 1947-1949, it conducted a series of sensational investigations into supposed communist infiltration of the U.S. government and Hollywood film industry.
national security act of `47. /NSC
Passed by Congress in 1947 and it created the Department of Defense. It also established a National Security Council (NSC) to advise the president on security matters and a Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to coordinate the government foreign fact-gathering.
chiang kai shek/ mao ze dung
Mao Tse-Tung led the Communists in China. Because of the failure to form a coalition government between Chiang Kai-Shek and the Communists, civil war broke out in China after WWII. The Communists won in 1949, but the new government was not recognized by much of the world, including the U.S.
Servicemen's Readjustment Act, also called the G.I. Bill of Rights. Granted $13 billion in aid for former servicemen, ranging from educational grants to housing and other services to assist with the readjustment to society after demobilization.
inchon invasion
The landing of UN troops, by General Douglas MacArthur, behind enemy lines at Inchon in Korea. In order to push back the North Korean troops.
berlin airlift
The USSR had embargoed all supplies that would go into the Allied Germany. In response, America used many planes to take and drop food and supplies into Berlin. They did this to show the USSR that they were determined to maintain control of Berlin. It worked, the Soviets lifted the blockade.
potsdam connference
Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.
chiang kai shek/ formosa
Chiang and the nationalists were forced to flee to Formosa, a large island off the southern coast of China, after the Communist victory in the civil war. Throughout the 1950's, the U.S. continued to recognize and support Chiang's government in Formosa as the legitimate government of China, and to ignore the existence of the Communist People's Republic on the mainland.
In American history, one of the most famous examples of blacklisting stemmed from an investigation launched in 1947 by the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) into Communist influence on the motion picture industry. The first in the industry to be blacklisted, as a result of their refusal to provide evidence to HUAC, were a group known as the Hollywood Ten, most of them screenwriters, who had at one time or another been members of the American Communist Party.
marshall plan/ george marshall
Issued in response to the struggling European countries, the Marshall Plan would allow the U.S. to give financial assistance to certain countries. This was done to prevent communism from rising in countries like France and Italy, whose economies where suffering after WWII. It was agreed in July 1947 that the U.S. would spend $12.5 billion, over four years, in sixteen different nations. In order to receive financial assistance you had to have a democratic government.

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