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Pharmacology 2 UIUC Grimm Inhaled


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Understand the difference between the terms vapor and gas
Gas - phase of matter which expands to fill container
Vapor gaseous phase below boiling point temperature
Define vapor pressure and partial pressure. Understand the factors which do and don’t influence vapor and partial pressure.
Vapor pressure is the pressure exerted by a gas: affected by heat, other gasses present
Partial pressure is the part of the total pressure of a mix of gasses that is exerted by one component of the mix: not affected by other gasses
What physical measurement must be stated along with vapor pressure.
Describe the difference between vapor pressure and vapor concentration. Which is used to describe how much anesthetic is
being administered? Which is best correlated to the clinical effect?
vapor concentration is the percent of the mixture that is a particular gas: Concentration is most often used(vapor% or %): partial pressure
Define partition coefficient.
A partition coefficient is the ratio of the concentration of a substance in one medium relative to another at equilibrium.
Know what the Meyer-Overton theory relates to.
correlation b/w lipid solubility of an inhaled anesthetic and minmum alveolar concentration (MAC)
Understand the effect of blood:gas partition coefficient, cardiac output, alveolar ventilation, and tissue perfusion effect the uptake and elimination of anesthetic gases
increasing inspired concentration, alveolar ventilation, or DECREASING cardiac output can all increase the speed of induction, the
opposite effect is generally seen at recovery
Know what government agencies set guidelines for waste anesthetic exposure limits and what agency can enforce those
NIOSHA sets limitations, enforced by OSHA
Know the limits for waste anesthetic gas exposure.
Halogenated agents alone 2 ppm
Nitrous oxide alone 25 ppm
Halogenated agents with nitrous oxide
⬢ 0.5 ppm for halogenated agent
⬢ 25 ppm for nitrous oxide
Define MAC
Minimum Alveolar Concentration 1 MAC - 50% of patients respond to noxious stimuli/50% dont
Measure of potency
Know the factors which can increase MAC
Duration Of Anesthesia
Type Of Stimulation
Hypocarbia (P CO< 21 mmHg)
Hypercarbia (P CO > 95 mmHg)
Metabolic Alkalosis
Isovolemic Anemia
Arterial Hypertension
Thyroid Function
Know the factors which can decrease MAC
Metabolic Acidosis
Hypoxia (P < 38 mmHg)
Induced Hypotension (MAP < 50 mmHg)
Decreased Central Neurotransmitter
Ethanol Intoxication
Neuromuscular Junction Blockers
Local Anesthetics
What is Dalton's Law of paartial pressure?
The partial pressure exerted by a gas is independent of other gases in the mixture; therefore the partial pressure exerted by an
anesthetic gas in an inspired gas mixture is the is the same as it would be if the gas were by itself.
What is Boyle's Law?
If the temperature is kept constant and the volume of the container is reduced, the molecules of gas will have the same kinetic energy, but collide with the walls
of the container more often. Boyle Law - PV = Constant. When used to examine the effect of changes in pressure or volume it is commonly written as
What is Charle's Law?
If heat energy is added to a system, kinetic energy will increase. That will cause the gas molecules to collide with the walls more
frequently. If the pressure is kept constant, the volume of the container must increase. This is expressed as Charles as Law: V/T =Constant.
A more common expression when considering the effect of a change in temperature or volume is V1/T /T1=V =V2/T /T2. Temperature is in Kelvin.
What is Henry's Law?
The general definition of Henry's law is: the solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional tothe pressure of the gas over the solution.
From it you can derive the following formula: c=kP Henry's Law constant is dependent only on temperature.

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