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Psychology 320 Final Exam Motivation Dr. Baldwin


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Dispositional Attribution
explain events based upon a personality i.e. the reason why Johnny helps a lady across the street is that he has altruistic tendancies.
Situational Attribution
The reason why johny doesn’t help the lady is that he is trying to earn a merit badge, not because of how he is as a person
(Heider) Attribution Theory
Developed how the naïve person comes to make causal statements. Thought of People as naïve scientists, utilize two things to make perspectives
1)Dispositional Attribution
2)Situational Attribution
(Kelly) Attribution Theory
One of the major theorists that took Heider’s theory and elaborated on it, she said that:** attribtions are very important and necessary because they help us navigate, master, and control our world.
Ex: If we know that fire burns, that controls our avoid touching fire, we navigate around that (cognative schemata).
** Kelly says is that we actually make a cognative map of the cause and effect linkage of a given cause and a given outcome, and we use these maps to navigate around our world.
Theory based upon three assumptions and four rules for generating casaul attribution schemata
Kelly Attribution Theory
3 Main Assumptions:
1)1. Human beings are motivated to understand the world in which they live, human nature in innately inquestitive, and because we have this desire to know; we begin to construct these causal attributions in our minds, and these are important because they help us guide our behavior.
2)2. The second assumption is that the general public tends to be naïve scientists—as naïve scientists, we try to explain our world through cause and effect.
3)3. The third assumption is that causal attributions are not random; Kelly wants to emphasize that when we make our cognitive map, that we see in our world, there is a method to generating this map, and it is logical and not random.
Kelly Attribution Theory
4 Rules for Generating Casual Attribution Schemata
1)The cause must preceed the effect. We know that this is a part of causality, what we learn in terms of the cause, there is a temporal relationship between the cause and the effect.
2)perceptualy salient stimuli are more likely to be seen as the cause rather than less salient visual stimuli in the visual background. Kelly is saying that we usually try to make attributions to the most obvious thing that we can.
3)The cause resembles the effect. If the effect is small, than we assume that the cause is small or minor, vice a versa
Kreb (early 70s)
studied helping behavior/empathy. Learned individuals similar to you will foster empathy. Batson used this idea in an altruistic paradigm.
Tolman's Foundation of Cognative Psychology/Argument Against Behaviorism
THE THESIS STATEMENT FOR BEHAVIORISM: WHOEVER CONTROLS THE REINFORCER CONTROLS THE BEHAVIOR. This means that the individual has 0 control. Tolman says we are not at the mercy of the environment. We have free will. THE FREE WILL IS BASED UPON THE ABILITY TO CHOOSE. When we engage behavior, 95A% of the time we expect to be rewarded. WHAT YOU VALUE WILL BE WHAT YOU CHOOSE.
Orlick (1991) “In Pursuit of Excellence” (book)
interviewed successful business men, women, and athletes. Came up with the formula for ‘excellence’. People who achieved excellence “are committed and possess self-control”.
Three Types of Confidence According to Zen Buddhism
1. False Confidence: Someone who knows they don’t have the skills to perform the task, so they compensate by talking trash.
2. Conditional Confidence: Based upon results. If the immediate outcome is good, the individual is cocky. As soon as the outcome turns, your belief in yourself fails.
3. Unconditional Confidence: based upon the genuine goodness and self worth of the individual. Because you know that you are good and decent and skilled, you don’t focus on the immediate outcome.
Self Control and Commitment: Successful men do daily what unsuccessful men do occasionally.
Murray (1938) Personality Theory
States that people differ with regard to personality characteristics; says these characteristics are DRIVEN by psychological needs. Murray called these needs psychogenic needs or motive dispositions.
**Two types of needs psychogenic and biogenic
ex. dominance is a psychogenic need
Murray Definition of Achievement:
A need to excerise power, overcome obstacles, to do something difficult well and quickly.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Projective technique:A projective test is one in which a person's patterns of thought, attitudes, observational capacity, and emotional responses are evaluated on the basis of responses to ambiguous test materials. Individual is presumed to project their personality into a situation from an unconscious perspective. You CANNOT DEVIATE FROM THE INSTRUCTION because it will affect the scoring. consists of 31 pictures that depict a variety of social and interpersonal situations.The subject is asked to tell a story about each picture to the examiner. Of the 31 pictures, 10 are gender-specific while 21 others can be used with adults of either sex and with children.
McClelland (1980’s) nAch: need to achieve
Believed that achievement motivation was a personality characteristic. Believed that achievement and motivation was learned. Based on the consequence following a given action, there is affect associated. Also facilitates achievement.
EX: When you are rewarded, the affect is joy, pleasure, etc. The other way to motivate drive is punishment
Background of Batson's Study of Alturism (Elaine Shocks)
All-female study on “performance under stress” (really altruistic study). Elaine was the performer in this study and was asked to recall a bunch of numbers. The stressor was a device she was hooked up to that would administer a shock at random. She could be ‘shocked’ at any time. What Batson is trying to show is that Elaine is helpless and under duress. Was actually trying to determine was to what extent will the female participants take her place (engage in alturistic behavior)?
PARTICIPANTS BELIEVED PURPOSE OF STUDY is to see how well Elaine performs under pressure. Participants are observers; are told they have to write a report on Elaine’s behavior and performance. LED TO BELIEVE that the pain and distress from Elaine's shocks that they witness is real.
Conditions of Batson's Study of Alturism (Elaine Shocks)
Hypothesis: females who look like Elaine will take her place.
Two conditions involving participants:
1)Empathy- either low or high, depending on the similarity of their appearance to Elaine
2)Ease of escape-either easy or difficult. Those who are easy escapes are told that they can take Elaine's place if they want, but if they do not wish to, they are free to leave. Difficult escapes are told they are permitted to take Elaine's place, but if they choose not to they must remain and continue watching her be shocked.
**Opposite of Milgram study with shocks, those giving shocks did not feel responsibility
Conclusions of Batson's Study of Alturism (Elaine Shocks)
1)With those who were in a high empathy with Elaine, it didn't seem to matter if they could easily escape or not, they were about equally as likely to take her place
2)One way to enhance helping behaviors is to make the situation inescapable.
3)Helping behaviors increase with lowering of the chances to escape the situation
4)Low empathy/difficult escape group's actions have nothing to do with alturism, the help to avoid punishment or receive rewards; they help someone in distress if it reduces their distress i.e. comforting a screaming baby in a setting where escape is impossible just to not hear it scream.
Active Avoidance Behavior
Nothing to do with alturism, the help to avoid punishment or receive rewards; they help someone in distress if it reduces their distress i.e. comforting a screaming baby in a setting where escape is impossible just to not hear it scream.
Passive Avoidance Behavior
Not helping situation, but rather avoiding addressing it i.e. drinking to feel better about problems rather than directly trying to find solutions
Deviant Behavior
Any behavior that is considered antisocial. i.e. self-mutilation
Deviant Behavior (Learning Perspective)
Deviant behavior is reinforced in the environment somehow in a way that maintains the behavior's occurance- i.e. attention, money, priase, pleasure.
Behaviorist attribution for the behavior, believe treatment occurs by identifying and removing the reinforcer for the deviant behavior.
Deviant Behavior (Physiological Perspective)
Deviant behaviors are attributed to physiological properties of the individual; they cannot help themselves.
i.e. Amydygala damage has been shown to cause extreme and irrational aggression
i.e. Peope addicted to drugs
Deviant Behavior (Cognitive Perspective)
People commit deviant behavior because they choose to. (Expectancy-Value Theory).
Expectancy-Value Theory (Tolman 1930's)
We are motivated by what we expect as reinforcers and the frequency and value we place upon those reinforcers.
What behaviors provide a consequence that most greatly a person values, for the most part, is what they choose to do.
i.e. A student goes out and drinks heavily the night before he has early class: he will either go to class because he is afraid he will miss a quiz (quiz is reinforcer) or will stay in bed because he is hungover (quiz is reinforcer still, but student values sleep)
Theory of Planned Behavior and Theory of Reasoned Action
The major difference between TRA and TPB is the addition of a third determinant of behavioral intention, perceived behavioral control. Perceived Behavioral control is determined by two factors; Control Beliefs and Perceived Power. Perceived behavioral control indicates that a person's motivation is influenced by how difficult the behaviors are perceived to be, as well as the perception of how successfully the individual can, or can not, perform the activity. If a person holds strong control beliefs about the existence of factors that will facilitate a behavior, then the individual will have high perceived control over a behavior.
Three Variables which influence behavioral intentions:
1)Their attitudes towards specific behaviors (not general attitudes).
2)Subjective norms, which are their beliefs about how their friends will view the specific behaviors.
3)Perceived behavioral control, which is how easily they can perform the behaviors.

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