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Essentials of Psychology Ch. 8: Motivation and Emotion


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Bob and Ken, two friends, go fishing. Their boat sinks six miles offshore. Bob can't swim, so Ken gives him the only lifejacket and proceeds to swim the six miles back to get help for Ken. According to evolutionary theory, Bob helped Ken because
If he becomes known as a helpful person, then others will respond when he requires help.
After a long day, Velma begins to yawn. Fred and Daphne ask Velma if she would like to play a game with them. Even though Velma usually wins the game (which makes her feel very good about herself), she decides to turn down their offer and go to sleep. Ac
A psychologist, who favors the arousal theory of motivation, might explain why people take up skydiving as follows:
"They do it because they don't have enough excitement in their lives."
When Calvin was asked why he was attending college, he responded, "It's the best way to get a good job." Calvin's answer is most consistent with which theory of motivation?
Ronald is a typical obese person who often eats huge quantities of his favorite meal: fried chicken, French fries, and chocolate ice cream. It is therefore likely that, in his body, the hormone leptin is released
At the same levels as for most people.
Four-year-old Josh is an underweight, finicky eater who claims to like only peanut butter and jelly sandwiches. To get him to consume the maximum amount of food, his mother should
Offer him a variety of foods as well as peanut butter and jelly sandwiches at every meal.
Kirsten is 20 pounds over her ideal weight while her friend Beth is obese. What is likely to happen when both teens go on the same restrictive diet?
Kristen will lose more weight than Beth.
Dana, a typical anorexic, and Jaclyn, a typical bulimic, probably differ in that only
Jaclyn understands that she needs help.
Paul and Dawn have been together for two years. On the average, they have sex three times a week. In the past, both have had a sexual relationship with one other partner. How do they compare with the typical American couple?
They have sex more often but have had fewer sexual partners than the average couple.
Matt's testes had to be surgically removed. When his wife asked the doctor what will happen to their sex life, the doctor most likely told her that Matt would be
Able to have sexual intercourse, but without much interest.
Which of the following teens is struggling with his or her sexual orientation?
Midori, who is confused because she feels a sexual attraction for both males and females.
Four children are working on airplane models. Which one appears to have the highest need to achieve?
Patricia, who selected a model of medium difficulty rather than an easy one that she was sure to finish successfully.
Joe manages an appliance store with ten salespeople. Business has not been good, lately. How can he best motivate his workers to sell more appliances?
By soliciting their advice on increasing sales.
A deficiency orientation is evident when a
Well-off business executive feels deprived when his neighbor purchases a yacht.
Which of the following violates Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
Chloe stays up for 48 hours as part of a sorority initiation.
While exploring a haunted house, Shaggy and Scooby become quite hungry. They could go into the kitchen where the food is stored; but it is very dark in there, and they might encounter a ghost. The decision of whether or not to go into the kitchen is whic
"My stomach feels as if I swallowed a large, jagged rock," thought Jeff. "This interviewer must be making me feel real nervous." The above scenario is in line with which theory of emotion?
The Schachter-Singer theory.
Which of the following is an example of transferred excitation?
After jogging three miles, you become very angry at your roommate for doing something that would normally irritate you just a little.
Dennis had never been to a football game until last Saturday. During the game, a player on the opposing team dropped the ball, and a home-team player jumped on it. Dennis did not know how to react; but he observed other fans smiling and cheering, so he s
Social referencing.
True / False

Since the hormone leptin appears to provide a satiety signal to the brain, giving leptin injections to overweight people can wipe out obesity as a health problem.
True / False

Castrating sexual offenders is effective in sex crime prevention.
True / False

Gay boys who cannot join the Boy Scouts have no right to complain about the group's membership policy. After all, these boys chose to be homosexual.
True / False

Abraham Maslow's theory, that physiological, safety, and acceptance needs have to be fulfilled before someone can achieve self-respect and self-actualization, is too simplistic.
True / False

What we call feelings or emotions -for instance, love and hate-are no more than thoughts given another name.
True / False

Even if you can't speak the language of the foreign country you are visiting, you will be able to get along all right by paying attention to facial expressions and tone of voice.
The tendency to maintain a constant or balanced physiological state is known as
The theory that attributes motivation wholly to automatic, involuntary, unlearned behavior patterns is
Instinct theory.
Danielle's friend Don is obese. She wants to help him lose weight, so she decides to inject a substance into his bloodstream to reduce his eating. What is the substance?
Stan and Oliver are brothers. Stan is thin but Oliver is obese. Oliver is more likely than Stan to
Avoid healthy foods.
Danielle's friend Don is obese. She wants to help him lose weight, so she hooks an electrode to a part of his brain. When she thinks that he has eaten enough food, she will stimulate that part of his brain to make him stop eating. To which part of Don's
The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus.
Because Enrique is obese, which of the following is most likely to be true about him?
He is more at risk for diabetes than a typical lean person.
Charlene occasionally eats large amounts of food and then eliminates the meal by making herself vomit. She would most likely be diagnosed with
Bulimia nervosa.
Tiffany, an anorexic teen and her friend Stella, who is bulimic are alike in that both
Equate being thin with being attractive.
The 1994 University of Chicago survey of sexual behavior found that the average male had ________ sexual partners in his lifetime, whereas the average female had ________ sexual partner(s) in her lifetime
6; 2.
After a torrid romantic encounter, Frank says, "It just isn't fair, Dolores. After I experience orgasm, I have to wait a long time before I can experience it again. But you can experience orgasm after orgasm in fairly quick succession!" Dolores
A refractory period.
Heather is a 21-year-old lesbian. Compared to her friend Kathy, a heterosexual, Heather is more likely to have
Been exposed to higher levels of androgen in the uterus.
Which of the following is not considered to be a sexual dysfunction?
Which of the following guidelines will help develop achievement motivation in a child?
Challenge the child-encourage the child to try new, difficult tasks.
Personal happiness depends foremost on
Inherited personality traits.
In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, ________ needs take precedence over ________ needs.
Belongingness; esteem.
The limbic system structure that appears to play a central role in emotional expression is the
When her instructor told a joke that Misty didn't find funny, she politely smiled. Misty's smile was controlled by her
Pyramidal motor system.
Hector is sitting down and relaxing. His heartbeat is slow, and his stomach digests his lunch. Which of his systems has been activated?
Parasympathetic nervous system.
In a haunted house, Samantha sees a witch. As Samantha's body responds to the situation, she becomes very scared. Because her bodily response and her emotional reaction occur simultaneously, Samantha's experience is most consistent with which theory of e
All babies everywhere smile-including blind babies. This is evidence that some expressions of emotion are

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