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Chapter 20: Obstetrics and Gynecological Emergencies


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Delivery of the fetus and placenta before 20 weeks; miscarriage.
The fluid-filled, baglike membrane in which the fetus develops.
amniotic sac
A scoring system for assessing the status of a newborn that assigns a number value to each of five areas of assessment.
apgar score
The vagina and cervix.
birth canal
A plug of pink-tinged mucus that is discharged when the cervix begins to dilate.
bloody show
Delivery in which the buttocks come out first.
breech presentation
The lower one-third, or neck, of the uterus.
The appearance of the infant's head at the vaginal opening during labor.
Convulsions (seizures) resulting from severe hypertension in the pregnant woman.
A pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, typically in a fallopian tube.
ectopic pregnancy
A condition of infants who are born to alcoholic mothers; characterized by physical and mental retardation and a variety of congenital abnormalities.
fetal alcohol syndrome
The developing, unborn infant inside the uterus.
A delivery in which the presenting part is a single arm, leg, or foot.
limb presentation
A woman who has had previous pregnancies.
A woman who has had more than one live birth.
An umbilical cord that is wrapped around the infant's neck.
nuchal cord
The area of skin between the vagina and the anus.
Tissue attached to the uterine wall that nourishes the fetus through the umbilical cord.
Premature separation of the placenta from the wall of the uterus.
placenta abruptio
A condition in which the placenta develops over and covers the cervix.
placenta previa
A condition of late pregnancy that also involves headache, visual changes, and swelling of the hands and feet; also called pre-eclampsia.
pregnancy-induced hypertension
The position in which an infant is born; the part of the infant that appears first.
A woman who is experiencing her first pregnancy.
A woman who has had one live birth.
A situation in which the umbilical cord comes out of the vagina before the infant.
prolapse of the umbilical cord
A drop in blood pressure caused when the heavy uterus of a supine, third-trimester pregnant patient obstructs the vena cava, lowering blood return to the heart.
supine hypotensive syndrome
The conduit connecting mother to infant via the placenta; contains two arteries and one vein.
umbilical cord
The muscular organ where the fetus grows, also called the womb; responsible for contractions during labor.
A muscular distensible tube that connects the uterus with the vulva (the external female genitalia); also called the birth canal.

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