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FA: Embryo pp118-120 Day 3

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Describe first week of embryogenesis.
Day 0 -> fertilization
Day 2 -> zygote
Day 3 -> morula
Day 5 -> blastocyst
Day 6 -> implantation
Day: fertilization by sperm, initiating embryogenesis
Day 0
week: implantation (as a blastocyst)
week 1
week: bilaminar disk
week 2
week: gastrulation, primitive streak, notochord, and neural plate begins to form
week 3
week: neural tube formed. organogenesis. extremely susceptible to teratogens.
weeks 3-8
week: heart begins to beat. upper and lower limb buds beginn to form.
week 4
week: genitalia have male/female characteristics
week 10
Rule of 2's for 2nd week
2 germ layers (bilaminar disk): epiblast, hypoblast
2 cavities: amniotic cavity, yolk sac
2 components to placenta: cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast
Rule of 3's for 3rd week
3 germ layers (gastrula): ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
what invaginates to form primitive streak
epiblast (precursor to ectoderm)
What gives rise to both intraembryonic mesoderm and endoderm?
primitive streak
name 3 types of ectoderm
neuroectoderm, surface ectoderm, neural crest cells
Adenohypophysis, lens of eye, epithelial lining, epidermis
surface ectoderm
Neurohypophysis, CNS neurons, pineal gland, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells
Neuroectoderm
Name all derivatives of neural crest (13)
ANS, dorsal root ganglia, cranial nerves, melanocytes, chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla, enterochromaffin cells, pia and arachnoid, celiac ganglion, Schwann cells, odontoblasts, parafollicular (C cells) of thyroid, laryngeal cartgilage, bones of the skull
ANS, dorsal root ganglia, cranial nerves, melanocytes, chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla, enterochromaffin cells, pia and arachnoid, celiac ganglion, Schwann cells, odontoblasts, parafollicular (C cells) of thyroid, laryngeal cartgilage, bones of the s
Neural crest
Surface ectoderm derivatives (4)
Adenohypophysis, lens of eye, epithelial cells, epidermis
Neuroectoderm derivatives (6)
Neuroectoderm, CNS neurons, pineal gland, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells
Dura mater, connective tissue, muscle, bone, cardiovascular structures, lymphatics, urogenital structures, blood, serous linings of body cavities, spleen, adrenal cortex, kidneys
mesoderm
mesoderm derivatives
Dura mater, connective tissue, muscle, bone, cardiovascular structures, lymphatics, urogenital structures, blood, serous linings of body cavities, spleen, adrenal cortex, kidneys
gut tube epithelium and derivatives (lungs, liver, pancreas, parathyroid, thyroid, thymus)
endoderm
endoderm derivatives
gut tube epithelium and derivatives (lungs, liver, pancreas, parathyroid, thyroid, thymus)
Induces ectoderm to form neuroectoderm (neural plate).
notochord
Postnatal derivative of notochord
nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disk
Teratogens are most susceptible in which weeks of pregnancy?
weeks 3-8 (organogenesis)
birth defects and mental retardation (leading cause);
Alcohol
renal damage
ACEi
abnl fetal development and fetal addiction
cocaine
vaginal clear cell adenoca
DES (diethylstilbestrol)
congenital goiter or hypothyroidism
iodide
extremely high risk of birth defects
13-cis RA
limb defects ("flipper" limbs, phocomelia)
thalidomide
preterm labor, placental problems, ADHD
tobacco
multiple anomalies (includes midface hypoplasia)
warfarin
Can fetal infections cause congenital malformations
yes (duh)
With 1 chorion, can be (monozygotic/di/both)
monozygotic only
(2 amniotic sacs, 1 chorion, 1 placenta)
With 2 chorions, can be (monozygotic/di/both)
both (2 amnions, 2 chorions, 2 placentas)
number of umb arteries, umb veins
2 arteries, 1 vein
what returns deoxygenated blood from fetal internal iliac arteries
2 umb arteries
supplies oxygenated blood from placenta to fetus
umb vein
removes nitrogenous waste (from fetal bladder, like a urethra)
allantoic duct
single umbilical artery is associated with ___ and ____
congenital and chromosomal anomalies

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