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Chapter One Science Cells and Heredity


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these organelles capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell.
nucleic Acids
Nucleic acids are very large organic molecules made up of C, O, H, N, and P. Nucleic Acids contain all the instuctions to carry out all the fuctions of life
cell wall
a stiff wall surrounds the cell membrane giving the cell and rigid boxlike shape.
An Enzyme is a type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing.
What are the building blocks of proteins?
Amino Acids
Substances that can move into and out of a cell do so by one of these three methods. What are they?
diffusion, osmosis, active tansport
Ribonucleic acids
plays an important role in the production of proteins.
Deoxyribonucleic Acids
the genentic material that carries information about an organism that is passed form parent to offspring.
Compound microscope
A light microscope that has more than one lens
selectivly premable
which means that some substances ca pass through wile others cannot.
an instrument that makes small objects look larger
What did Robert Hooke do?
He invented the firse compound microscope
is the process by which molecules tend to moce from an area of hogher concentraction to an area of lower concentraction.
active tansport
thw movement of material through a cell membrane using energy.
Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM)
A Stm measures electrons that leak or "tunnel" from the surface of a specimen.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Theis metwoek of passafe ways carries materials from one part of the cell to another.
passive transport
the movement of materials through a cell membranr without using energy
What is the main difference between active transport and passive transport?
Active transport requires the cell to use energy while passive transport does not.
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
TEMs make images be sending electrons through a very thinly sliced specimen
thin strands floating in the nucleus, contain the genetic material, the insturctions that direct the function of a cell.
What is the cell theroy?
The cell theroy is
All living things are composed of cells.
Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.
All cells are produced from other cells.
where two or more element are chemically combined
These small structures function as factories to produce proteins. Ribosomes may be attached to the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum, or they may float free in the cytoplasm.
Some cells that are carried into and out of the cells are calicum, potassium, and sodium

These small organelles found in many animal cells contain chemicals that break down food particles and worn out cell parts.
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
This Microscope sends a beam of electrons over the surface of a specimen rather than through it.
inorganic compounds
compounds that do not contain carbon
first the cell surrounds or First the cell membrane engulfs a particle. Once the particle is engulfed the cell membrane pinches off and forms a vacuole within the cell.
the smallest unit in a compound
Directs all of the cells activities including reproduction.
the ability to make things look larger that they are.
The four most important organic compounds
lipids, proteins, arbohydrates, nucleic acids.
golgi body
The golgi bosies receive materials through the and send them to other parts of the cell.
Most of the cell's energy is produced within these rod-shaped organelles.
organic compounds
compounds that contain carbon
the basic units of structure and function in living things
vacuole (in plants)
Most mature plant cells have a vacuole. The sac within the cytoplasm stores water, food, waste, and other materials.
where ribosomes are produced
How do the lens or lenses in a light microscope magnify and object?
By bending the light that passes through them
are energy rich organic compounds made up of the elements C, H, O. Sugars and starches ate examples of carbohyrates.
the smallest unit of an element
Convex lens
A lens where the middle is thicker then that around the rim
The ability to clearly distinguish the individual part of an object. Resoultion is another term for th sharpness of an image.
Amino Acids
protein molecules made up of smaller molecules called amino acids.
What are the two exceptions to inorganic compounds?
Carbon dioxide and Carbon monoxide
Dobacterial cell have a cell wall and a cell membrane or a nucleus
cell membrane (in plants)
The cell membrane protects ythe cell and regulates what substances enter and leave the cell.
the cytoplasm is the area between the cell membrane and the nucleus. it contains a gel-like fluid in which many different organelles are found.
Cell membrane (in animal cells)
Since an animal cell does not have a cell wall the cell membrane forms a barrier between the cytoplasm and the environmentoutside the cell.
Lipids are energy rich organic compounds made up of C, H, O,. An example of a lipid is a fat, butter, oil, wax
are large organic molecules made of C, H, O, N, and in some cases S. some examples of protein meat eggs fish nuts and beans
Most Chemical reactions would not take place within cells without...
the diffusion of water molecules througfh a selectly premable membreane
any substance that can be broken down ito a simplier substances
tiny cell structures

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