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Science-1st Trimester Test

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Some of the skills that scientists use (there are 10)
1) Posing questions 2) Making Observations 3) Making Inferences 4) Developing hypotheses 5) Designing experiments 6) Making measurements 7) Collecting Data 8) Interpreting data 9) Drawing conclusions 10) Communicating
A well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations is a
Scientific theory
True or False. In science, a hypothesis doesn't have to be testable.
False. A hypothesis must be testable.
Researchers must be able to carry out 1.______ and gather 2.______ that will either 3._____ or 4.______ the hypothesis.
1.investigations 2.evidence 3.support 4.disprove
______ is a way of learning about the natural world.
science
the diverse ways in which scientists study the natural world
scientific inquiry
a possible explanations for a set of observations or an answer to a scientific question
hypothesis
factors that can change in an experiment
variable
the one variable that is changed to test a hypothesis (independent variable)
Manipulated Variable
an experiment in which all of the variables except for one remain the same
Controlled experiment
a well tested concept that explains a wide range of observations
scientific theory
What are 6 Characteristics that all living things share?
1. cellular organization 2. contain similar chemicals 3. use energy 4. grow and develop 5. respond to their surroundings 6. reproduce
Who was one of the first people to observe cells?
Robert Hooke
A change in an organism's environment that causes the organism to react is called a(n) _______________
stimulus
Organisms that make their own food are _________
autotrophs
All living things are called ________.
organisms
The ______ is the basic unit of structure in an organism.
cell
An organism reacts to a stimulus with a ____________.
response
The cell theory states:
1. All living things are composed of cells 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things 3. All cells are produced from other cells
Magnifies high-power and low-power
Objective lenses
reflects light upward through the diaphragm
mirror
supports the slide being used
stage
tiny cell structures that carry out specific functions within a cell
organelle
rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cell of plants and some other organisms
cell wall
controls what goes into and out of a cell
cell membrane
cell's control center and directs the cell's activities
nucleus
clear, thick, gel-like fluid between the cell membrane and the nucleus
cytoplasm
produces most of the energy the cell needs to carry out its functions, rod shaped structure
mitochondria
capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell, gives plants their green color
chloroplast
strorage area for a cell, plant cells usually have one large one, most animal cells usually don't have any
vacuole
List 3 ways that cells use water:
1. keep their size and shape 2. most chemical reactions within cells need water to take place 3. it helps the temperature of the cell keep from changing rapidly
any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
element
the chemical combination of two or more elements
compounds
an energy-rich organic compound such as sugar
carbohydrate
large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and, in some cases, sulfur
proteins
small molecules that make up proteins
amino acids
type of protein that speeds up chemical reactions in living things
enzymes
an energy-rich organic compound such as fat
lipids
very large organic molecules made of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
nucleic acids
type of nucleic acid that passes from parent to offspring and directs all the cell's functions
DNA
type of nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins
RNA
The cell membrane is selectively permeable, which means that _______________
some substances can pass through while others cannot
What is the process of diffusion?
It's when molecules tend to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
What is Osmosis?
It's the diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
How do nearly all living things obtain energy?
either directly or indirectly from the energy of sunlight captured during photosynthesis
What is respiration?
the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose
What is Mitosis?
the stage during which the cell's nucleus divides into 2 nuclei
the movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy
passive transport
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy
active transport
provides energy for cells without using oxygen
fermentation
occurs in yeast and some other single-cell organisms, alcohol is the product when the organisms break down sugar
Alcoholic fermentation
final stage of cell cycle where the cytoplasm divides, distributing organelles into each of the 2 new cells
cytokinesis

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