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Nutrition Chapter 1


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the dietary characteristic of providing all of the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health and body weight
the dietary characteristic of providing foods of a number of types in proportion to each other, such that foods rich in some nutrients do not crowd out the diet foods that are rich in other nutrients.  Also called proportionality.
basic foods
milk and milk products; meats and similar foods such as fish and poultry; vegetables, including dried beans and peas; fruits; and grains.  These foods are generally considered to form the basis of a nutritious diet.  Also called whole foods.
calorie control
control of energy intake; a feature of a sound diet plan
units of energy; the amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of a kilogram of water 1 degree celsius
compounds composed of single or multiple sugars
chronic diseases
long-duration degenerative diseases characterized by deterioration of the body organs.  
style of cooking
the foods (including beverages) a person usually eats and drinks
elemental diets
diets composed of purified ingredients of known chemical composition; intended to supply all essential nutrients to people who cannot eat foods
the capacity to do work. Food energy is measured in calories.
energy-yielding nutrients
the nutrients the body can use for energy.  They may also supply building blocks for body structures. 
Enriched or Fortified Foods
foods to which nutrients have been added
ethnic foods
foods associated with particular cultural subgroups within a population
fast foods
restaurant foods that available minutes after customers order them
lipids that are solid at room temperature
any substance the body can take in and assimilate that will enable it to stay alive and grow
the sum of a culture's habits, customs, beliefs, and preferences concerning food.
the full complement of genetic materials in the chromosomes of a cell.  
includes dairy products, vegetables, grains, legumes, fruits, and nuts; excludes flesh, seafood, and eggs
beans, peas, and lentils, valued as inexpensive sources of protein, vitamins, minerals, and fiber that contribute little fat to the diet
any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients.  Nutrient of energy deficiencies are classes as forms of under-nutrition; nutrient or energy excesses are classed as forms of over-nutrition
naturally occurring, inorganic, homogeneous substances, chemical elements
the dietary characteristic of providing constituents within set limits, not to excess
natural foods
often used to imply wholesomeness of foods; no legal definition
a term used to mean compounds other than the six nutrients that are present in foods and have biological activity in the body
nutrient density
a measure of nutrients provided per calorie of food
components of food that are indispensable to the body's functioning.  They provide energy, serve as building material, help maintain or repair body parts, and support growth.  The nutrients include water, carbohydrates, fat, protein, vitamin
the study of the nutrients in foods and in the body; sometimes also the study of human behaviors related to food
nutritional genomics
the science of how nutrients affect the activities of genes and how genes affect the activities of nutrients. 
people who eat food of both plant and animal origin, including flesh
carbon containing - include only those made by living things and do not include carbon dioxide and a few carbon salts.  Four of the six nutrients are organic: vitamins, carbohydrates, fat, protein.
organic foods
products grown and produced without the use of synthetic chemicals
includes eggs, vegetables, grains, legumes, fruits, nuts; excludes flesh, seafood, and milk products.
partitioned foods
foods composed of parts of whole foods, such as butter (from milk), sugar (from beets or cane), or corn oil (from corn).  Generally overused and provide little nutrients with high calories. 
non-nutrient compounds in plant-derived foods that have biological activity in the body
an inert harmless medication often used in scientific studies
processed foods
foods subjected to any process such as milling, alteration of texture, addition of additives, cooking, or others. A processed food may or may not be nutritious.
compounds composed of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, and nitroge arranged as strands of amino acids.  some amino acids also contain sulfur. 
staple foods
foods used frequently or daily: ex. rice in east asia.
designed to aid the vitamins and minerals found in food: ex. multi-vitamin
the dietary characteristic of providing a wide selection of foods- the opposite of monotony.
people who exclude from their diets animal flesh and possibly other animal products such as milk, or eggs.
organic compounds that are vital to life and indispensable to body functions, but are needed only in minute amounts; noncaloric

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