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psych chp 7


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cognitive revolution
1) 19th centruy focus on mind
2) behaviorist focus on overt responses
3) emirpical study of cognition
simon and nevell
1) simon and nevell - prblm solving

2) chomsky - lang development

3) miller - memory
mental progress involved in attaining/ understanding info
cognitive psychology
the study of the mental processes by which the infor from the environment is

2)made meaningful
4)communicate w/ others
the representation and processing of info in the mind
the process by which people generate and evaluate arguments and beliefs
inductive reasoning
from specific observations to general propositions / relies on probablity
deductive reasoning
drawing a conclusion from a set of assumptions / begins w/gereral and ends w/ specific / basic laws applies in all cases
consists of two premises that lead to a logical conclusion

ex: All terriers are dogs. All terriers are mammals. Therefore, All mammals are dogs.
analogical reasoning
process by which ppl understand a novel situation in terms of a familiar one / situations must contain certain similarities / need not literally resemeble each other / elements must explain how situations are related
errors in logical reasoning
all gun owners are ppl
all criminals are ppl
all ppl are criminals
why we make errors - 1)confirmation bias / 2)limits
1) tendency to seek only info that confirms our beliefs / ignore info that discomfirms our beliefs

ex: doc that had mentally ill patient who died

2) we may not be able to hold all premises in short term memory at the same time
problem solving
process of transforming one situation into another to acheive a goal

ex: getting a date, exams, crossword puzzle, graduating
characterisitcs common to all problems - 4
1) initial state - a description of the unsolved problem

2) set of operations/actions - mechanism to get from inital to goal

3) goal - description of what consitutes a solution

4) not obvious - the solution is not immediately obvious - it is a problem b/c it requires you to think
well defined problems ex: crossword
1) initial state - empty puzzle
2) actions - clues, dictionary, friends
3) finishing boxes
4) solution was not immediatly obvious
ill-defined problem
when the info needed to solve problem and when what the goal is are vague

ex: solving educational system of GA

ex: making your parents proud
problem solving strageties - 2
1) algorithms - systematic procedure that will produce a solution

advantages - guaranteed solution
disadvantages - time consuming (lock combo)/not all problems have obvious algorithm( apt hunting)

2)mental simulation -imagining steps involved in solving a problem before actually undertaking them
obstacles to problem solving - 3
1) fuctional fixedness - tendency to view an object as having only one purpose ex: candle match box

2) mental set - persistent use of problem solving strategies that worked in the past

3) confirmation bias - seek to confirm what we already believe
methods for becoming a better problem solver - 5
1) restructuring
2) analogies
3) working backwards
4) incubation
5) set up sub-goals
changing the way you represent problems

ex: chunking - when asked to memorize a set of words
analogies - 4
1) personal analogy - place yourself directly in situation

2) direct analogy - look for solutions from comparable fields

3) symbolic analogy - metaphors

4) fantasy analogy - based on things known not to be
ex: "we want a lil slave to dial the phone for us"
working backwards
working backwards from goal / insight / rephrasing
incubation - 3
increased likelihood of solving a problem if you take breaks

1) occurs only after some mental effort

2) a burst of insight

3) results in more work but w/ a diff approach
decision making - 3
process by which in individual wieghs pros and cons of diff alternatives to make a decision

1) generating, selecting and evaluating choices

2) where the rules for deciding are not obvious

3) choices involve some risk - uncertainity
heuristics - advantages and disadvantages
cognitive shortcuts for selecting among alternaties w/out carefully considering each one

advantages: works under some circumstances / increase efficiency / simplify tasks

disadvantages - may lead to systematic bias / errors in judgement / not guaranteed correct answer
representatvie heuristic - 4
matching the similarity of an obj to a prototype but ignore info about its probability of occuring ex: description read of jack sounds like engineer - participants asked to pick if he was lawyer or engineer out of 70% lawyers

1) used to judge membership in a class

2) judge similarity to stereotypes

3) people ignore pre-existing distribution of catagories of base fate frequency

4) gambler's fallacy - mistaken belief that the next chance event will be to ensure representatives ex:50/50coin toss
availability heuristic
people infer the frequency of something based on how readily it comes to mind - events we can easily recall are typical

people are biased by info that is easy to recall - swayed by info that is vivid/well publizied ex: vaccines

biased by examples that they can easily retrieve

correlate events that occur close together
variables that affect availabitlity heuristic - 5
1) ease of searching - whatever is easier to imagine will be brought forth ex: words starting w/ k or wordes w/ k in middle

2) general world knowledge - what is more common - earthquakes in SF or Memphis?

3) familiarity - objs that are more familiar will appear greater in # ex: famous woman names in list of normal guy names

4) vividness - objs that are vivid are more memorable and hence more available ex: advertisements "don't drink and drive" - car crash

5) personal relevance - info is given disproportionate amount in weight ex: jaguar vs. ferrari - if friend tells them info that jaguar is better - they will go for jag
implicit cognition
cognition outside of awareness
implicit learning
ppl implicitly register regularities in their environment or learn to behave in particular was w/ lil or no explicit instructions

1) rules of gaze

2) where to look in an elevator
system of symbols, sounds, meanings and rules for their combination that constitute primary mode of communication - our thoughts to others
linguistic universals - 8
features that are common to all known languages - to be considered a lang - it must have

1) interpersonal/communicative - two or more ppl communicate

2) symbolic - symbols of lang are arbitrary ex: hiss = sound

3) meaningful - words express a concept - same for everyone that speaks that lang

4) referential - particular symbols refer to something in the world

5) structured - implicit rules of sent structure

6) multiplicity of structure - words can have more than 1 meaning

7) creative/productive - use lang to produce an infinite # of phrases

8) dynamic - lang is constantly evolving - ex: email/internet
study of how sounds are organized in lang
smallest unit of sound that constitutes speech

ex: sKi and Cat - k and c represent same phoneme
phonological rules
general statements about the relationship between sounds

ex: sounds that go together = sp, ac, by

sounds that don't = zw, bt, wv
smallest unit of meaning in lang / every word in eng lang is made up of 1 or more morphemes

ex: cat + "s" changes meaning - therefore "s" is a morpheme
rules that combine morphemes / next level of analysis above phonemes

ex: noun + "ed" = no
verb + "ed" = yes
non-verbal communication - 7
1) vocal intonation (tone of voice)

2) body lang ex: crossed arms

3) gestures

4) physical distance

5) facial expressions

6) touch

7) non-verbal vocalization ex: sighs/throat clearings
children aquire lang w/...
astonishing speed. / 1 yr old- rattle nonsense / 4+yr - mastered basics / avg person knows 60,000 words
Behaviorist Theory to lang aquisition
B.F. skinner proposed that parents encourage utterances / they do not correct grammer / they correct facts and expand utterances
Nativist Theory to lang aquisition
1) incredible speed of aquiring grammar skills

2) grammar is learned first - LAD(lang aquisition device) - innate set of neural switches for aquiring lang (ex:sign lang)

3) lang aquisition pace is similar cross culuturally - univeral grammer - innate shared of linguisitic principles

4) similar development pattern in sign lang - ex: kids use grammar in sign lang even though they've never been taught
interactionist theory to lang aquisition
biological predisoposition and supportive enviroment contribute to lang development
interactionist theory - cognitive theory
lang development is part of a more cognitive development, depending on maturation and experience
interactionist theory - social communication theory
interpersonal communication shapes lang - emphazises social context
emergentist theory
you are not born w/ prewired nueral circuits but rather they emerge as in repsonse to learning experiences - incremental changes in connection networks
four stages to lang aquisition
stages are not discrete - no definitive ending/starting pt.

1) prelinguisitic
2) one word utterance
3) two word utterance
4) three word utterance and beyond
mixture principle
a child's speech will show several levels of complexity at any given time
prelinguisitic stage - 2
birth - 18mons

1)crying - signals emtional state / causes parents to respond

2) cooing and vocal play - applies to deaf children too / interaction takes on socail quality
one word utterance stage - holophrastic speech

holophrastic speech - using a single word to communicate the meaning of complete sent
Whorfian hypotheses
language shapes thought
two word utterance stage

utterances composed of only the most essentials

ex: want up

drastic increase in vocab
three word utterance stage and beyond

increase in use of syntax

sent longer and more complex

begin to aquire grammar

ex: use morphemes

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