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Psychology unit one test


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at what number does a neuron reach action potential
Where do positive messages enter through on a neuron?
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse (exitory-> triggery)
when axon terminals meet up with the dendrites
synaptic vesicles
they release neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft then bind onto receptor sites as they bind onto the next neuron
synaptic cleft
the gap between 2 neurons
chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another
sensory neurons
relay info from the senses to brain to spinal cord
motor neurons
carry outgoing info from brain to muscles to glands
carry information between neurons in brain
close enough to our natural neurotransmitters that it can create same effect
molecule about the same size that it block off the neurotransmitters but can't mimic effect of the neurotransmitter
triggers muscle contraction, involved in learning ex:Caffeine and nicotine are ach agonists
linked to paincontrol and to pleaure ex; morphine is endorphin agonist
what are the 2 divisions of the nervous system
central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
Central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system
is made up of all those nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord autonomic nervous system. consists of the somatic and autonomic nervous system
autonomic nervous system
nerves to bheart blood vessels, smooth muscles, glands. branches to sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
parasympathetic division
conserves bodily resources
sympathetic division
mobilizes bodily resources
afferent nerves
incoming nerves
efferent nerves
outgoing nerves
somatic nervous system
nerves to voluntary muscles, sensory receptors
Structures in the hindbrain
cerebellum, medulla, and pons
structures in the forebrain
thalamus, cerebrum, limbic system, hypothalamus
structures in the cerebrum
prefrontal cortex, frontal lobes, parietal lobes, temporal lobes, occipital lobes
structures of the limbic system
hippocampus and amygdala
synaptic transmittion
synthesis and storange -> release -> binding -> inactivation or removal or reuptake
the oldest part of the brain and automatic survival functions
controls heartbeat and breathing, helps regulate blood circulation and regulate muscle tone
reticular formation
controls arousal
body movement, sleep and dreaming
coordinate voluntary movement and balance this area is affected by alcohol
relay station for senses, language production but smell doesn't go through the thalamus
the limbic system is considered..
border between older and newer functions of the brain. controls drives and emotional control
aggression and fear. sleep deprevation makes the amygdala hyperactive
helps trigger addiction. flight, flee, feeding, fornication
processes memory
cerebral cortex
language complex memories
corpus callosum
large band of neural fibers
frontal lobes
making plans and judgement, motor cortex, brocas area, controls whether your outgoing or shy, brocas area in frontal lobe allows you to move your mouth and tongue, produce language
parietal lobes
the somatosensory cortex
occipital lobes
visual cortex- why if you hit your head hard enough in back of head you see stars
temporal lobes
auditory complex, wernickes area
how we detect and encode physical energy
how we organize and interpret this information
2 processing modes
bottom up and top down
bottom up processing
start with sensory info and then interpret
top down processign
start with mental idea and apply to sensory info
process of sensation
sensory receptors detect stimuli, transduction, transferred via chain of neurons to brain, sensory adaptation
how stimuli is converted to neural impulse
sensory adaptation
receptors acclimate to unchanging stimulation
visual receptors
consist of rods and cones which are organized into receptive fields
where are visual signals processed and distributed
thalamus then to occipital lobe
what triggers sight?
electromagnetic energy
what is the hearing stimulus?
soundwaves pass through medium
what are the receptors for hearing?
tiny hair cells that line the basilar membrane inside the cochlea
how is hearing stimuli converted to a neural impluse
when fluid moves over the hair cells, they bend and trigger a neural impulse
what areas of the brain process hearing?
temporal lobes
what triggers stimulus for taste?
5 tastes: Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami
what are the receptors for taste?
taste buds on the tongue
what are of the brain processes taste?
thalamus then the frontal lobe
what triggers stimuls for sense?
airborne chemicals
what receptors convert stimuli to a neural impuls for smell?
olfactory stimuli
what is the only sense that doesn't go through the thalamus?
where in the brain is smell processed?
temporal lobe and limbic system
what triggers sense?
mechanical,thermal, and chemical energy that impinge on the skin
what receptors convert stimuli to a neural impulse with touch?
6 skin receptors
what part of the brain is touch processed?
parietal lobe
binocular and monocular cues are forms of..
depth perception
outer ear (pinna)
funels sounds to auditory ear canal which funnels sound to ear drum where it starts a chain of vibration
How is consciousness measured physically?
EEg moniters brains electrical activity
Which brain waves are most active?
what stage does dreaming happen in ?
theta stage
enable ust to focus on the effects of a factor by manipulating that factor
what is the only way to determine causal relationships
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated
dependent variable
the behavior or mental process that's measured . this is what you change
what element of an experiment of experiment do you change?
dependent variable
operational definition
how we will measure or define a variable
experimental condition
group that is exposed to the independent variable
control condition
the group that is exposed to the same experimental environment but is not given the treatment
Socrates and Plato believed in ...
innate knowledge and that its something we are born with
descartes believed what?
that our mind and body are separate entities. like when you die your knowledge lives on
Wilhelm wundt
used a chronoscope to experiment human reaction time. science with him was used to examine the mind
what was the goal of structuralism?
to break consciousness into basic elements
Who came up with the idea of Structuralism?
What is introspection?
systematic observation of one's consciousness
What are the rules of introspection
The observer must 1.know when the experience begins and ends 2. The observer must maintain "strained attention" 3.the phenomenon must bear repetition 4.phenomenon must be capable of variation
William James
father of functionalism
What is the view of functionalism
it gives us a sense of mortality and allows us to better preserve ourselves
focus on unconscious and early childhood experiences and has the idea that there is a bunch of subconscious memories hidden beneath us that affect people's behavior
only studies observable behaviors and is determined by environment
study of how people can be the best they can be and states we will make choices for personal growth
Cognitive Psych
focuses on the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
Biological Psych
Behavior described in terms of the psychological process, involves brain and nervous system
Evolutionary Psych
says natural selection occurs for behavioral as well as physical characteristics
sociocultural psych
deals with ethnocentrism and how culture and society affect behavior
What are the three most important steps of the scientific method?
1.generate theory 2.hypothesis 3.research and observations
What are the three descriptive research methods?
Case study, survey, and naturalistic observation
Franz Gall
studied phrenology, and told people their personality traits by looking at their head
building block of the nervous system and allows for communication
receive messages from other cells
cell body (soma)
the cells life support center
passes messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands
neural impulse
electrical signal traveling down the axon (action potential)
myelin sheath
covers the axon of some neurons and speeds up neural impulse
terminal branches
form junction of neuron
What are the 3 main types of neurons?
1.sensory neurons (afferent) 2.motor neurons (efferent) 3.Interneurons
the opening in the center of the iris that changes size as the amount of light changes
sensory tissue that lines the back of the eye. IT contains millions of photoreceptors (rods and cones) that convert light rays into electrical impulses that are relatyed to the brain via the optic nerve
the clear domeshaped tissue covering the front of the eye
the crystalline structure located just behind the iris it focuses light onto the retina
the colored part of the eye that controls the amount of light that enters the eye changing the size of the pupil
optic nerve
the nerve that transmits electrical impulses from the retina to the brain
what is consciousness?
awareness of internal and externall stimuli
Non rem sleep is..
the first four stages of the sleep cycle
Stage 5 of sleep is?
Rem sleep! The brain seems awake, vivid dreaming, eyes dart around
What are reasons for sleep?
immobilization to avoid danger,conserve energy, restore bodies resources,growth, improve learning and memory

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