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exercise 5


undefined, object
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structural and functional unit of all living things
round or oval structure near the center of the cell; contains the genetic material;
the way the genetic material is when not dividing; thin, threadlike loosely dispersed in nucleus
DNA when cel is dividing; dense, darkly staining rodlike bodies
compoised of proteins and RNA; assembly sites for ribosomal particles
nuclear envelop
double layer; binds the bucleus; has nuclear pores
Plasma membrane
separates cell contents from environment; phospholipids and globular protein molecules; fluid mosaic model;protective barrier; decides what enters and leaves;
minute fingerlike progjections or folds that reatly increase the surface area of the cell available for absorption or passage o material and for the binding of signaling molecules
denely staining, roughly sphericle bodies composed of RNa and protein; sites of protein synthesis; floating or on RER
highly folded system of membranous tubules and cisternae that extends throughout the cytoplasm; continuous witht the nuclear envelope;
has ribosomes; modify and store the newly formed proteins and dispatch to other areas of the cell; extremely plentiful in organs that create lots of protein
smooth er
produces lipids and hormones-- drug detoxification
stack of flattened sacs w/ bulbous ends; prtoeins delivered to it from the ER are modified, segregated, and packaed into membrane vesicles
membranebound sacs containing digestive enzymes; acid hydrolases; dgigest worn-out cell structures and foreign substances; "suicide sacs"
like lysosomes, contain enzymes; oxidases detoxify harmful substances, mainly free radicals; detox
rod shaped bodies w/ double membrane wall; enzymes catalyze the reactions of the Krebs cycle; power house of the cell
cytoskeletal elements
support and move substances w/in the cell: microtubules, intermediate filaments, microfilaments
slender tubules formed of tubulins; have ability to aggregate and disaggregate spontaneously; organize cytoskeloton and direct formation of spindle; ; transport of substances down lenghth of elongated cells, suspend organelles, elp maintain cell shape
intermediate filaments
stable proteinaceous cytoskeletal elements that as wires to resist mechanical (pulling) forces acting on cells
ribbon o cordlike elements; formed of contractile proteins (mainly actin) ; can shorten and relax, so important in mobility;
paired; rodshaped bodies that lie at right angles to each other; each centriole composed of 9 triples off microtubules; direct formation of mitotic spindle and form cilia and flagella
not active in metabolic machinery of cell; stored foods, pigment granules, crystals o various types, water vacuoles, foreign materials

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