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Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table


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horizontal rows of elements, elements in these are in different groups with different properties
Average Atomic Mass
Average of masses of all isotopes of that element that occur in nature
particle that has 1 amu and no electric charge
smallest particle of any element, that has the properties of that element and has no charge (neutral)
another name for families of elements, the verticle columns of elements, have elements with similar properties and chemical reactions
Transition Elements
elements in middle of periodic table, periods 4-7
Atomic Number
# of protons in an atom
Particle that has 1 amu and a charge of +1
Noble Gas
elements of group 18 in this family
center of an atom and location of protons and neutrons that is very dense and has a positive electric charge, almost all mass of atom located in this
Mass Number
Total count of the neutrons and protons in an atom
Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons, some elements only have one others can have many
elements found on left side of periodic table
elements bordering line dividing metals and nonmetals and have some properties of both metals and nonmetals
particles that move about the nucleus forming a cloud of negative charge, move at very quick speed, found in different energy levels, grouped in pairs
elements on right side of periodic table, elements that usually have five or more electrons in outer energy level
Electron Cloud
region around the nucleus occupied by electrons with negative electric charge
Periodic Table
chart that shows the classification of elements
substance that consists of only one kind of atom, cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical change
lightest and most abundant element in universe
electrical wire often made from this element
shorthand way to write the name of an element, sometimes taken from Latin name of element
Electromagnetic Force
force of attraction (opposite charges) or repulsion (like charges) that keeps the negative electrons near the positive nucleus in an atom
Nuclear Force
overcomes electromagnetic force of repulsion between the positive protons in the nucleus (it keeps the nucleus together)
very small particles of matter that make up protons and neutrons, currently six different types known
What determines the type of element?
# of protons in nucleus of atom
Electrons that are farther from the nucleus have _____ energy.
Amount of Electrons each energy level can hold
1st- 2, 2nd- 8, 3rd- 18
Factors that Determine an Element's Properties
The # and arrangement of electrons in atom, # of valence electrons, period/group #
Standard atomic mass unit, a proton has +1, neutron has -1
How # of neutrons in atom can be found
by subtracting atomic # from mass #
Ways to Write Isotopes
Put mass # after name of element (or symbol, ex. Carbon 12 or C14), put mass # and atomic # with symbol (ex. 6 over 12 C, 6 over 14 C)
Each box of periodic table represents & contains:
Represents an element, in center- name and symbol, below name- atomic mass (listed as average of masses of isotopes), above name- atomic #
In periodic table, elements listed in order of increasing ______ ______.
atomic #
Last Digit of group # represents: (excluding transition elements)
the number of valence electrons (electron in outermost ring)
Period # represents:
the number of energy levels in an atom
Metals characteristics
have 3 or less valence electrons, good heat and electricity conductors
Valence Electrons
electrons in outermost energy level

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