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xDachille: Southeast Asia economics (agriculture & industry); education


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Cash Crops
Crops produced primarily for market, not for subsistence.
Commercial Farming
European plantation system uses cheap labor.

Cash crops: tea, hemp, rubber, pepper, tobacco, cocoa.
Green Revolution
Uses science/tech to ↑ output.

Requires dependable water supply, fertilizer, insecticides, pesticides.
Intn’l Rice Research Institute (1962) & IR-8
Developed new type of rice with shorter growth cycle.

Yields 3 crops per year.
Doubles harvest.
Shifting Agriculture
Slash&Burn method is wasteful.

Practiced by hill people.
Soil loses fertility.
Subsistence Farming
Just enough to survive, typically little surplus.

Average farmer rarely travels.
Live in small villages.
Cottage Industry
Small industry where labor is often family using own equip.
Four Dragons/Tigers
High growth rates between 1960s-1990s. Depends on export. Asian econ. Crisis contributed to decline.

Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea.
Little Dragons/Tigers
Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia
Newly Industrialized Countries experienced explosive econ growth.

Fueled by Japanese investors and industries seaking cheap labor & land.
Rapid Industrialization
Problems: Huge movement of people from rural to cities.
Brain Drain
Many students do not return from foreign universities.
Colonial Education
Limited Western-style education
Modern Education
Universal edu mandated by law.
High dropout rate due to: poverty; health; distance; lack of enforcement.

Literacy↑; Attendance↑
Traditional Education
Varied forms: practical skills; Religious (Buddhist schools in Burma & Thailand).

Most people illiterate.

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