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Geology Final Test Terms


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Normal faults accommodate which kind of strain
The principle of continents being in buoyant equilibrium is called
Folds in a rock show that the rock behaved in ? Way
The core of the earth is probably composed mainly of
Structural dome
A structure in which beds dip away from a central point is called
Seismic wave velocities
The physical state of different layers in the earth is determined primarily by
The minimum number of seismic stations needed to determine epicenter
In radioactive decay, the element that is the result of the decay process is called
Which division of geologic time was the longest
Within a layer of undisturbed sedimentary rock, the layers get younger going from bottom to top
A contact between parallel sedimentary rocks that records missing geologic time is a
The point within the earth where seismic waves originate
Curie Point
The temperature above which a material loses its magnetic properties
The Modified Mercalli Index measures
Which waves are slower - s waves or p waves
Strike Slip Fault
The San Andreas is an example of what kind of fault
The composition of oceanic crust is similar to the igneous rock
Crustal Rebound
The rise of earth's crust after a glacier melts is called
The change in size, shape or both of a rock in response to stress is known as
Outer Core
The magnetic field is generated by what layer
S waves, P waves
Name the 2 types of body waves generated by an earthquake
Half life
The amount of time it takes for half the amount of an unstable isotope to decay into more stable product
Compostion of the matter
The classical subdivisions of the earth are based on
S waves
What type of body wave can travel through solids but not liquids
Cross cutting relationship-a feature that cuts across another feature is ? than the feature it cuts across
Richter Scale
Measure of earthquake magnitude that is based on largest seismic wave recorded by seismograph
Position on earth's surface directly above the earthquake source is called the
Atoms containing the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are called
different rates of cooling & crystallization
The difference in texture between intrusive & extrusive rocks is primarily due to
Compaction and cementation are two common processes of
The correct sequence of rocks that are formed when shale undergoes prograde metamorphism is
By definition, stocks differ from batholiths in
differential stress
Shearing is a type of
Kilauea in Hawaii
A typical example of a shield volcano is
A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by ordinary methods
A metamorphic rock that has undergone partial melting to produce a mixed igneous-metamorphic rock is
On Moh's hardness scale, glass has a hardness of
A body of rock of considerable thickness with characteristics that distinguish it from adjacent units
the nature of a lava's mobility(fluidity) is known as
Flood basalt
the largest volcanic eruptions based on volume of material erupted are known as
swamp,damp, wet
In what type of environment does coal usually form?
What type of bonding involves atoms that share electrons?
what sediment size would you expect to find close to the source area of that sediment
What is the basic building block of silicate materials
During metamorphism, the recrystallization and formation of new materials w/o changing the composition is called
The ability of a mineral to break along a preferred plane is called
the subatomic particle that is negatively charged is called
Hydrological cycle
Cycle of precipitation, evaporation, infiltration that water goes through
97.5%salty, 2.5 fresh
Break down of water
most important agent of erosion
gradient, velocity,discharge
Characteristics of streams
erosion, transportation, deposition
work of streams
Dissolved load, suspended load, bed load
ways of transportation
maximum size particles that a stream can transport - related to velocity
total amount of sediment that a stream can carry - related to discharge - greater discharge/greater capacity
lowest point to which a stream can erode its channel
Sea level
ultimate base level
Narrow V shaped valley
occurring when stream downcutting is rapidly occurring
Wide valley
stream near base level - more focused on moving side to side
heavy rain, rapid snowmelt, dam failure
Causes of flood
Levees, dams, channelizing
Flood control
Delta, alluvial fans
Depositional features
Alluvial fans
stream coming from mountains hits valley floor - slows down - drops its sediment
Stream flowing into standing body of water - drops out its sediment
Amount of void space in a rock
ability of a material to transmit a fluid
Rock type
Porosity depends on
granite-bad, sandstone-good, clay very good
Porous rocks
porous rock or sediment that freely transmits groundwater
impermeable layer that hinders groundwater movement
Water table is usually a _____ of the surface topography
occur where the water table intersect the surface
Water wells should be drilled ______ into the zone of saturation to deal with dry years
Zone of aeration
void spaces not completely filled with water
Zone of saturation
void spaces completely filled with water
removing water faster than it can be recharged
Cone of Depression
Results of a permanent drawdown
Artesian Well
Groundwater rises above the point it was 1st encountered
Tilted aquifer, confined aquifer(aquitard above & below)
2 things need for artesian wells
mining the aquifer, contamination
2 sources of groundwater problems
water table drops,wells go dry,subsidence
results of mining the aquifer
Septic tanks,gas stations,landfills,farms
Sources of contamination
Caverns,sinkholes,disappering streams
Evidence of Karst topography
work of groundwater
caverns, speleothems, sink holes, karst topography
waves are generated by
windspeed,wind duration, fetch
length, speed, & height of waves controlled by different aspects of wind such as
distance of water that the wind travels over
wave height
distance from crest to trough
wave length
distance from trough to trough or crest to crest
Longshore current
waves arrive at shore at an angle - creates longshore drift
rip currents
narrow current that flows straight out to sea to return water that has piles up along shore
biggest indicator of emergent coast
Strip of sediment along the shore
sand bar formed by long shore drift - near encloses bay
Bay Mouth Bar
sand bar formed by long shore drift - enclosed bay
Tidal flat
area of land that is covered by water in high tide and exposed in low tide
Head lands
areas of land that extend into the ocean
Drowned river valley - Chesapeake bay
bar of sand that connects an island to land
barrier islands
long sandy islands parallel to shore, separated by lagoo-not permanent - Galveston, Matogorda
sea stacks
isolated pillars of rock formed by rock erosion
Origin of sand
Man made features on beach
Used to protect harbors
Walls built perpendicular to shoreline to prevent longshore drift
walls built parallel to shore to create smooth waters - absorb wave energy
sand enrichment
bring in sand from other areas to fill in beach
land is rising with respect to sea level
water is rising relative to the land
emergent coast
terraces,delta,beach,spit,baymouth bar,tidal flat,headlands
Submergent coast
estuary,spits,beach,tombolo,tidal flats,barrier islands,sea stacks

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