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Scientific Revolution and The Enlightenment

Terms

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Social Contract
based on general will(sacred and absolute,reflected the common intrest of all people and sometimes it was not just the majority it also delt with the possible long term needs of the people) and popular sovereignty(political unit)
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who supported free trade market-Wealth of Nations 1776
Montesquieu
focused on conditions that would promote liberty and prevent tyranny -was not a democrat but did not like the idea of seperated powers because of the effect it would have on wealth. he voiced his opinions through letters supposedly written by Persiam travlers who see european customs in different ways and can hereby critize practices and beliefs
Descartes
a mathematician who doubeted everything that could reasonably be doubted and then use deductive reasoning from obvious principles to establish scientific laws
Salon
talented and often rich women who in large social groups gathered in ones elegant drawing room-an independent cultural realm free of religion and political censorship where social elites could form their own public opinion
Newtonian Revolution
Law of Universial Gravitation- everyone in the universe is attracts every other body in the universe in a percise mathematical relationship having to do with mass and distance
Copernicus
a Polish clergy man and astronomer who wanted to explain God's work. He embraced the idea that the sun instead of the earth was the center of the universe and the earth and the start revolved around it. He had his own theory, The Copernicus Theory which stated the earth world was very different from the heavenly one. This lead to ridicule from religious leaders.
Rousseau
attacked the Enlightenment's faith in reason, progress and moderation- rationalism and civilization destroyed insted of liberated-greatly influence by Diderot and Voltarie-began to believe that people were plottong against him and broke away from other people all together-committed to individual freedom-aided in the development of child psychology and modern education
Philosophes
one of history's most influential groups of intellectuals. They asked fundemental philosophical questions about the meaning of life, Gos, human nature, good and evil, and cause an effect. The were determined to reach and influnce all economic and social elites who they saw as eduicated or enlightened (also know as) the public. They also believed that the majority of common people were doomed to superstition and confusion because they lacked money and lesiure to look beyond struggle and poverty -could not critize France openly so they wrote plays, novels, etc. that contained double meanings and satire to convey their message.
Deism
Believing in God in different was like he created the universe then left it and took no control over the people and outcome-set a clock
Diderot
set out the teach people to think critically in all matters. The first enclyopedia
Galileo
a poor noble man who was fascinated by mathematics. His famous experiment found through rolling brass balls down an inclined plane produces uniform acceleration through gravity. From this he went on to create the Law of Inertia: being still is not the eternal state of an object-motion of the object will always continue unless stopped by an outside force. He was imprisoned and threatened with torture-a perfect example of conflict between religion and scientific knowledge. Also invented the telescope, pendulm, ect.
Bacon
argued that new knowledge had to be persued through expiermental research and justification. A person who wants knowledge must collect many specimens and compare and analyze them.
Bentham
founder of utiltarianism
Voltarire
the pen name of Francois Marie Arouet who believe in God but but a distant one who was more like a clockmaker who built an universe then let it run. he was imprisoned for eleven months in Paris for insulting the regent of France-constant struggle against injustice and unequal treatment of the law -a reformer in social and political matters and clamed the one could hope for in the way of government was a monarch because people are not able to govern themselves and the ideal of economic equality was "absurd and impossible"
Kant
a German philosopher who invented idealism
Enlightened Despot
encouraged and spread cultural values of the enlightenment-supported knowledge, education and the arts
Scientific Method
the method of learning and investigation. Thought to be the greatest invention of the Scientific Revolution because of its possible extension to many problems.
Newton
A very religious man who born in a lower English class and attended Cambridge University. He obtained a professorship and published a work called 'Principia.' He used Copernicus's, Kelper's and Galileo's findings to explain motion and mechanics
Kelper
mathematically simplified the data of a star in which Tycho Brahe studied for 20years. He also formulated three laws of planetary motion. 1) the orbits of planets around the sun are elliptical 2) planets do not move at a uniform speed in their orbits 3)the time it takes for a planet to make a full orbit is related to its distance from the sun.

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