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AP Bio Chapters 7-8

Terms

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cognitive map
an internal representation of spatial relationships among objects in an animal's surroundings
thermoclines
narrow layers of fast temperature change that separates a warm upper layer of water and cold deeper waters
behavioral ecology
scientific field of study that sees behavior as an evolutionary adaptation to ecological conditions
eutrophic lakes
shallower, and they have higher nutrient content with a high concentration of phytoplankton
biotic components
living components of an environment
agonistic behavior
refers to a contest that involves thretening and submissive behavior over a resource
carnivores
eat herbivores are called secondary consumers
detritus
dead organic matter
mullerian mimicry
two poisonous species evolve to reemble each other, ostensibly so that predators will learn to avoid them more quickly
kinesis
simple change in activity in respond to a stimulus, whereas a taxis is an automatic movement toward or away a stimulus
intertidal zone
where land meets water in marine (saltwater) communities
aquatic biomes
largest portion of biosphere, water covers roughly 75% of the globe
metabolic rate
the amount of energy it uses in a unit of time
chaparral
dominated by dense, spiny, evergreen shrubs, costal areas with mild rainy winters and long, hot ,dry summers.
nitrogen fixation
occurs when organisms convert N2 to usuable nitrogenous compounds
tertiary consumers
carnivores that eat other carnivores (other secondary consumers)
secondary succession
occurs when an existing community has been cleared by a disturbance that leaves the soil intact
ozone layer
reduces the amount of penetratiuon of UV radiation from the sun through the atmosphere, but is being eroded
tundra
posseses permafrost, cold temperatures, and high winds, supports no trees or tall plants. recieves very little rain and accounts for 20% of the earth's terrestrial surface
sociobiology
applies evolutionnary theory to the study of social behavior
ammonification
the decomposition of nitrogen back to ammonium
detritivores
aka decomposers, get their energy from detritus, which is nonliving organic matter such as the remains of dead organisms, feces, dead leaves, and wood
pelagic zone
any open water
essential nutrients
those that must be obtained in preassembled form because the animal can not produce them
community
assemblage of populations in an area or habitat
imprinting
learning that is limited to a certain time period in an organism's life, generally irreversible
keystone species
the most abundant species in a community
temperate grassland
makred by seasonal drought with occasional fires and by large grazing mammals. prevent significant growth of trees. soil is rich in nutrients
biomes
major types of ecosystems that occupy very broad geographic regions (coniferous forests, deserts, grasslands, etc)
dominant species
have the highest biomass in a community
biogeochemcial cycles
nutrient cycles that contain both biotic and abiotic components
cryptic coloration
in which the animal is comouflaged by its coloring
heterotrophs
organisms that are in trophic levels above primary producers
acid precipitation
rain, snow, or fog with a pH less than 5.6
signal
behavior that causes a change in the behavior of another individual
limnetic zone
well-lit open surface waters farther from shore, occupied by phytoplankton
permafrost
the permanently frozen stratum that exists in some biomes
batesian mimicry
a situation in which a non-poisonous animal has evolved to mimic the coloration of a poisonous animal
ecological succession
transition in species composition in a certain area over ecological time
classical conditioning
involves learning to associate a certain stimulus with a reward or punishment
effector
makes an appropriate change in homeostasis
ethnology
is the study of animal behavior
wetlands
areas covered with deep enough water to support aquatic plants
primary succession
plants and animals invade a region that was lifeless
aphotic zone
where very little light penetrates
enzymatic hydrolysis
reaction by which macromolecules are broken up, involves addition of water
territory
an area that an individual defends, usually excluding other members of its species
altruism
refers to events in which animals behavein ways that reduce their individual fitness and that increase the iftness of the recipient of the behavior
operant condititioning
occurs as an animal learns to associate one of its behaviors with a reward or punishment
profundal zone
deep aphotic region in a lake where the remains of smal organisms that live in the limnetic zone sink on their way to the benthic zone
niche
sum total of biotic and abiotic resources in its environment
pharynx
flap that does something and i deleted the definition love wes
epiglottis
covers the trachea during swallowing
estuaries
areas where freshwater streams or rivers merge with the ocean
abyssal zone
very deep benthic communities
savannas
insects, grassses, and some trees. many fires and plants adapted for fires. large mammals must migrate during regular drought seasons
learning
the modification of behavior that results from specific experiences
gastric juice
contains hydrochloric acid, breaks down the extracellular matrix of meat and plant materials, kills most bacteria ingested with food
denitrification
the process by which some bacteria can get the oxygen they need for metabolism from nitrate rather than from O2 under certain conditions
predation
an interaction between two speices in which one species eats the other species
biological magnification
toxins become more concentrated in successive trophic levels of a food web
primary producers
autotrophs, support all others in the ecosystem
benthos
organisms that live in the benthic zone
dominance hierarchy
"pecking order" in a group
food chain
transfer of food energy from plants through herbivores through carnivores through decomposers
receptor
detects a change as a homeostatic control factor
biomass
the sum weigh of all the members of the population
innate behavior
behavior which is developmentally fixed
social behavior
any kind of interaction between two animals
carrying capacity
the maxiumu population size that a certain environment can support at a perticular time with no degredation of the habitat
benthic zone
located at the bottom layer of all aquatic biomes, and it is made up of sand and organic and inorganic sediemnts
biodiversity
determiined by a community's size and geographic location
photic zone
enough light for photosynthesis to occur
oligothrophic lakes
deep lakes that lack nutrients and contain sparse phytoplankton
density independent
when a death rate does not change with increase in population density
estracellular digestion
carried out by most animals; in this type of digestion food is broken down outside the cells
cognition
ability of an animal's nervous system to percieve, store, process, and use information from sensory receptors
coral reefs
inhabit the neritic zone, a coral reef is a biome created by a group ofcdniarians that secrete hard calcium carbonate shells that vary in shape and support the growth of other corals, sponges, and algae
kin selection
natural selection that favors altruistic behavior by enhancing the success of relatives
littoral zone
well-lit shallow waters near the shore
desert
marked by sparse rainfall, contain many CAM plants and plants adapteded to prevent animals from consuming them (like cacti)
population
group of individuals of a single species that occupies a certain geographic area
food webs
food chains hooked together
parental investment
refers to the time and resources an indvidual spends to produce and nurture offspring
trophic levels
links in the trophic structure of a community
courtship
set of behavior patterns that lead to copulation
herbivores
eat primary producers and are called primary consumers
trophic structure
the feeding relationships among the organisms of a community
behavior
what an animal does and how it does it
associative learning
ability of some animals to learn to associate one stimulus with another
habituation
simple type of learning that involves a loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no information
abiotic components
nonliving, chemical, and physical components
fixed action pattern
sequence of behaviors that is largely unchangeable and usually carried to completion once it is initiated
nitrification
process by which ammonium (NH4+) is oxidized to nitrite and the nitrate (NO3-)
ritual
use of symbolic activity
hepatic portal vessel
all capillaries and veins that drain the nutrients away from the villi
pheromones
chemical signals that are emitted by animals
canopy
the upper layers of trees in a forrest
greenhouse effect
the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration that causes solar radiation to be re-reflected back to the earth
neritic zone
beyond the intertidal zone, the shallow water over the continental shelves
control center
processes information and directs it to the effector
oceanic zone
past the continental shelves
aposematic coloration
poisonous animal is brightly colored as a warning to other animals
elimination
occurs when the undigested material passes out of the digestive tract

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