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Personality 4

Terms

undefined, object
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what are the divisions of the topographic model
conscious preconscious unconscious
conscious
contains thoughts you are currently aware of
preconscious
large body of retrievable information
unconscious
mater to which we have no immediate access; cannot be brought into consciousness except for during extreme situations
structural model divisions

Freud

personality in ego, id, superego
id
present at birth, selfish and concerned only with satisfying immediate personal desire; pleasure principle = what brings immediate personal satisfaction, regardless of physical or social limits; held in check by the healthy adult personality; reflexive action to get what one wants; wish fulfillment
wish fulfillment
if object is not available, the id will imagine it -> temporary satisfaction
ego
based on the reality principle; develops during first two years of life when child interacts with the environ; unlike id, this is able to move freely among the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious; does try to satisfy wants of the id, and thus lessen tension, but in a way that considers consequences
superego
represents values and standards of society (esp parents) -> place restrictions; primary weapon = guilt; punishes us for moral violations, but also guides the ego to determine if bx=virtuous, thus worthy of praise; moral anxiety
moral anxiety
an ever-present feelings of shame/guilt for failing to reach standards no human can meet, but that the too-powerful superego can demand
what is the rx btween ego, superego, and id in strong indivs?
ego does not allow superego or id too much control
triebe

Freud

human bx is motivated by strong internal forces; translates to drives or instincts (ie libido and Thanatos)
libido
life or sexual instincts
thanatos
death or aggressive instincts
libido and Thanatos may...
oppose or intertwine
What did Freud attribute most human bx to?
libido - life or sexual instinct
How is Thanatos usu expressed?
Although the death instinct = desire we all have to die and return to earth, usu it is not expressed as self destruction, but rather turned outward in the form of aggression
psychic energy and its limits

Freud

we have a finite amount of psychic energy that more or less powers the psychological functions, so if one function is using most, another will not be able to start
example of limits of psychic energy
if using large amnts of En to control id, it has little En left to carry out its daily functions
one goal of freudian psychotherapy with psychic en
clients release unconscious impulses being held in check -> free up En
neurotic anxiety
vague feelings of anxiety sparked by the sensation that unacceptable unconscious thoughts are about to burst through the awareness barrier and express themselves in consciousness
how is neurotic anxiety dealt with?
use of defense mechanisms
repression
active effort of the ego to push treatening info of the ego out of consciousness/keep material from ever reaching consciousness
sublimation
ego channels threatening impulses to a nonthreatening impulse
according to freud, many of our irrational fears are a result of
symbolic displacement
denial
refuse to accept that certain facts exists; despite all evidence, we insist something still is not true
rxn formation
hide from a threatening unconscious idea or urge by acting in a manner opposite to our unconscious desires
intellectualization
removes emotional content from the thought before allowing it into awareness
projection
attributing unconscious impulses to others instead of ourselves
main influence on psychosexual dvlpmt is
events from first 5-6 yrs of life
psychosexual stages of dvlpmt
labeled such b/c chief cx = primary erogenous zone, and ea stage has its own spec influ on adulthood
fixation
tying of of psychic En in a partic stage -> leaves less En available for normal adult functioning
how can psychotherapists observe repressed id impulses?
as the manifest in disguised/altered form; use of techniques: dreams, projective tests, free association, freudian slips, hypnosis, accidents, symbolic bx
dreams quotes

Freud

royal road to unconsciousness

dreams provide id impulses with a stage for expression

manifest content

dreams Freud

what a dreamer sees and remembers
latent content

dreams Freud

what is really being said (and may be expressed symbolically)
free association is used to
temporarily bypass the censoring mechanism that the ego employs; difficult because ego has spent considerable En to repress threatening thoughts and is not likely to ease them into consciousness
use of hypnosis

Freud

if patient put into suspended state during deep hypnotic trance, hypnotist could bypass ego and get directly into material
accidents according to Freud
many accidents are intentional acts stemming from unconscious impulses
example of accident

freud

accidentally forgetting therapy session = resistance
why does symbolic bx not threaten the ego?
because it is not perceived for what it is
psychoanalysts
primary goal = bring unconscious material into consciousness where it can be examined in a rtional manner -> one surfaced, material must be dealt with in such a way that it does not manifest as another do -> therapist and client work together t help ego once again exercise appropriate control. Therapist reveals unconscious motives in timely manner to client
resistance
indicates that therapist and client have made progress and are about to get to crucial material -> threatened ego desperately attempts to defend agnst the approaching demise of its defenses as crucial unconscious material it about to burst into consciousness
projective tests are helpful because
if conflict easily self-reported, it is not the root of the problem; thus these tests allow unconscious info expression
types of projective tests
TAT, Rorshach, Human Figure Drawing Tests
In what sort of evaluation does the Rorschach gain empirical support?
Predictive accuracy of bx
Strength of Freud theory
first comprehensive theory of human bx and personality; served as template for others theories

first system of psychotherapy; its tools are still widely used (free association, hypn, etc)

popularized and promoted imp psy concepts



criticism of Freud theory
unconscious = not original Freudian concept

many hypotheses not testable -> heavy reliance of case studies (although he had a very homogeneous client base)

What do all psychodynamic perspectives have in common?
unconscious processes and intrapsychic dynamic
what did freud hope to reduce the human personality to?
neurology
id is also (quote)
a cauldron of seething expectations
ego control
delayed gratification
if ego is overwhelmed and cannot navigate incoming info, it will use
defense mechanisms
superego is made up of
conscience (what you do not want to do)

ego ideal (what you do want to do/possible self)

psychic determinism
no bx is unintentional
denial is common in anything
where a pattern exists because this defense is not usu just a moment, but a pattern
Which Freud ideas have gained empirical support
-a majority of thoughts, motives, etc = unconscious
-mental processes can work in parallel ways or can oppose one another
-early dvlpmt plays an imp role in personality and affects adult rxs
-mental representations of self and others influ social interaxn and affect psy symptoms
-personality/dvlpmt invs reg of sexual and aggressive feelings and mvmt from dependent to independent state
-implicit memory affects decisions and bx
-defensive styles are related to physical and psy health





symbols/events in your dreams =

Freud

usu sexual symbols
symbols/events in dreams

later psychoanalysts

dreams rep unconscious preoccupations, thus unresolved conflicts only during surface hrs
what research on dreams is consistent with Freudian notion that dream content is not random, and that issues inv problems and fears
children living in stressful conditions have more dreams, and esp higher incidence of threatening themes
What could possibly be empirical support for the Oedipus complex? What could be another explanation for this?
women equally likely to have MF characters in dreams; men most likely to have male characters -> Freud: men do not overcome conflict with fathers -> displacement on other males

also possible that men are more likely to interact with men throughout the day

What research is consistent with psyoa concept that recurrent dreams represent unresolved conflicts
-recurrent dreams tend to incl threatening images/danger

-students have more recurrent dreams during exam wk

-higher indiv anxiety lvl, more often phallic images appeared



what supports the Freudian concept that the major func of dreams = provide symbolic unconscious impulse with healthy outlet
bkgd: REM aka paradoxical sleep bc brain activity = sim to waking state

-indivs deprived of REM had more difficulty on stressful task and on coping with anxiety

-rebound effect: Ps deprived of REM one night expce more REM the next = REM serves some imp sleep func

-trauma victims who avoided thinking about traumas during the day had more dreams abt them at night





contrary evidence to Freudian concept that major function of dreams = symbolic expression of unc impulses in safe and healthy environ
-infants REM 8 hrs a day - what conflicts do they have

-REM found in all mammals

cornerstone of psychoanalysts
repression
why is it easier to ID use of defense mechanisms when using projective tests and their coding systems
can be clearer to distinguish defense mechanisms from actual events bc client does not have history with inkblot, etc -> statements that indicate defense mechanisms can more broadly denote an indivs predisposition to using DMs when dealing w anxiety
research on use of defense mechanisms in children
young children rely heavily on denial (serves as one of the few coping resources they have)

older children rely more on projection

defensive style
the partic batch of defense mechanisms we most often utilize
anna freud

DMs

provide research



DMs = maladaptive when used past a certain ago; use of the immature mechanisms part appro age = related to early childhood expces

research
-men who most utilized denial were the ones who expced highest lvl of stress during childhood

-use of immature defenses is assocd with problems in psy functioning

ppl who use immature dms during time of high anxiety expce less joy than those that do not






jokes Freud most concerned with
tendentious jokes = ones that provide insight to joke teller as well as person that laughs

two kinds of tendentious jokes:
hostility
sexual



aggressive jokes allow
expression of impulses normally held in check in a more socially appro way
research that support that humor/jokes allow discussion of taboo sexual topics
teen girls use humor to intro otherwise embarrassing topics into lunch time discussion
laughter following a not appropriate joke but allows for tension reduction is representative of
catharsis
we get pleasure in jokes not only because they are clever and funny, but bc
they reduce tension
research supporting freud emph on tendentious jokes
when judging ambig pictures and asked to write funny captions, respondent themes usu invd sex and aggression
humor regarding aggression twrd other groups research
humor found funnier when it picks at groups we do not like or do not belong to
Problem with result findings for Freud research
alternative explanations = available
according to Freud, hypnosis serves as
the passkey to highly hypnotizable patient unconscious mind bc barrier is weakened; a pocket is made in ego where unconscious info surfaces, but ego continues to monitor pocket
neodissociation theory
deeply hypnd ppl expce a division in their consciousness: part of conscious enters an altered state, but part remains aware of what is going on during the hypn session = hidden observer monitoring the situation
sociocognitive theory of hypn
explain actions elicited when hypnd by expectancy, motivation, and concentration and critical of hidden observer (argues that ppl only expce it bc they are told that they will)

same things can occur when indiv not hypnd (ie ridic bx)

hypn do not expect to remember what happened, thus make no effort to remember it



Ps are more responsive to hypn when
-situations not defined as hypnosis
-coop and trust secured w hypnotist
-most imp variable: participant/patient

personality traits that are invd in hyposability
-most imp: absorption (ability to become highly invd in sensory/imaginative expces)
-indivs able to become immersed in a role
-attitude
-motivation
-expectancy



support for oedipus complex with physical cxs
sig correlation btwn the phys cxs men prefer in their wives and the way they describe their mothers

-alternate explanations=

subliminal psychodynamic activation and support
exposes images to unconsciousness

support: aggressive images increasing depression in depressed; oral personalities more reactive to abandonment images

why is research in psyoa difficult
unconscious is not a manipulated variable
Erickson - ego during hypn
forms a new subsystem
neo Freudians
post/contemporary Freudians who have made more accurate elaborations of Freud theory
retained portions of Freudian theory
-unconscious as key to bx
-impact of childhood expces on early dvlpmt and adult expces
-acceptance of defense mechanisms and dream interp

limits of Freud theory for neofreudians
-reject notion that most adult personality formed at age 5
-challenged emph on instinctual sources of personality (esp bc this notion rejects culture)
-dislike of general negative tone of Freudian theories

Adler psychology and major ideas
individual psychology

-striving for superiority
-parental influ on personality dvlpmt
-birth order



according to adler, motivating force is not sex/aggression, but
striving for superiority, which is derived from feelings of inferiority that is expced in the beginnings of all our lives dt dependency of childhood -> achievement io to sep from feelings of inferiority
inferiority complex

adler

dvlps from excessive feelings of inferiority -> run from challenges instead of working to overcome them
Adler: achievement alone is not indicative of mental health; imp also that indiv has a concern for
social interest; sense of superiority and personal satis only met if goals reached while having consideration of welfare of others
what two parental bxs exist on a continuum and can lead to problems for child later in life
pampering: robs child of indepenences -> increases feelings of inferiority; imp that children struggle with own desires and mistakes

neglect: too little attn in childhood -> children grow up cold and suspicious, incapable of intimacy, may be ill at ease with closens and touching

first born will be

adler

pampered, but dethroned when 2nd born arrives -> expce feelings of inferiority, and first born often ends of the problems child, neurotic, criminal, drunkards, perverts
middle child

adler

not pampered; strong superiority of striving bc not as strong as oldest and feel a step behind -> always look at indiv ahead of them -> exerts extra effect to close the gap
youngest

adler

pampered -> very dependent and strong inferiority bc everyone in immediate environ is stronger/older
collective unconscious

jung

consists of thoughts/images that are difficult to bring into awareness, but they are not repressed out of consciousness, they are, rather, inherited from our ancestors as unconscious psychic cxs

made up of
-primordial images
-archetypes



primordial images
the potential to respond to the world in a partic way
archetypes
inherited images; as many archetypes as possible situations in life; evidence: show across cultures and time periods
anima
feminine side of male
animus
masculine side of female
anima and animus are
both used in romantic choices; project anima/us on opp gendered indiv and pick who best corresponds
shadow
unconscious part of selves that is essentially negative/dark side of our personalities; symbolized by devil
Erickson psychology
ego psychology - ego is relatively powerful and independent and works twrd such goals as establishing the identity and satisfying need for mastery of the environ; sense of identity includes an awarens of our uniqueness and feelings of continuity w our past and imagined future
identity crisis
confusion and despair we feel when we lack a strong sense of who we are
erickson on personality
dvlps throughout the life cycle

dvlpmt forks are crises; how ea crises = resolved determines path taken and impact on later dvlpmt (one maladaptive, one not)

neurotic

horney

ppl who drive ppl away w bx while trying to fight off feelings inadequacy; key cx = defeating interpersonal style
what is neuroticism cause?
distrubed interpersonal rxs of childhood -> children who grow up in anxiety-generating situations dvlp strategies for dealing w anxiety; in essence, learned rxs = form of social anxiety -> interaxn styles meant to ward off anxiety provoking situations
moving twrd ppl
deal with anxiety by emphasizing helplessness, compulsively seek affection and acceptance, intense need to be loved -> clinging and demand affection
moving agnst ppl
try to conquer anxiety, instability, inferiority by lashing out, bullying, aggression -> pushes others away
externalization

moving agnst

learn ppl are basically hostile and out to get what they can -> ends up being a form of projection in adulthood
Freud on reigion
-religion for the pathetic and uneducated
-religion = type of neurosis, where the child begins with helplessness and longs for a protector -> God = unconscious father figure generated in an infantile way to provide us with feelings of security
Religion and Jung
vacillated btwn religion as myth and religion as source of meaning, life, etc.; end of life = favorable approach bc provides followers with sense of purpose and feelings of security

-we inherit God archetype
-Ppl seek psychotherapy when religion fails to provide answers/reassurance


Fromm and religion
authoritarian religion (under control of God) v humanistic relgion (God = symbol of our own power)
personal narrative
typically interview/written response; describes scenes from life -> interview transcripts stories are coded to specific criteria (based on themes, freq of themes)
strengths of neo-freudian theories
-primary strength: elaboration on de-emphasized/ignored Freudian concepts

-use of concepts in everyday language

-optimistic tone paved way for humanism; emph on social aspects -> social learning



criticisms on neoFreudians
questionable evidence

oversimplication/ignored imp concepts

Two layers of unconscious
personal unconscious and collective unconscious

personal unconscious
-unique to the indiv
-personal, repressed material and info taken in through the senses that never registers completely
collective unconscious
-not a personal acquisition, contents = relatively sim
-it is not a specific image we inherit but a predisposition or potentiality for experiencing and responding to the world - innate (biological essence)
-come into world with capacities to live; imprinting; we are equipt to live

in archetypes, the potentiality is inherited. what determines our personal image
learned through expces
health of an indivs anima/us is related to
general psy health
why might a woman become animus possessed
trying to orient to being masculine for professional value
process of using anima/us in finding a match
project own qualities onto other -> projection of best qualities = elevation -> recollecting perceptions -> seeing personal wholely -> deeper love

use of anima/us helps to build a foundation

shadow

jung

-everything a person refuses to acknowledge abt him/herself
-inferior, rejected, undeveloped part of the self
-contains what is contradictory to our own image; more one tries to suppress shadow, more it tries to come out

what is an example of the shadow having a collective dimension
-German master race blaming all negative/imperfect aspects on the Jews
the closer we try to view ourselves in the light (perfection)
the larger our shadow becomes
typologies are

jung

differing attitudes twrd life (ie introversion v extroversion
function of jung typology
how we take in info
-sensation type - perceive through senses (exists if i see it)
-intuitive type - perception through unconscious

how we process info
-thinking type - focus on what is it (facts and meanings)
-feeling type - focus on is it agreeable to me

our attitude plus where we fall on our the continuum of each func determines our personality type







how does shadow dvlp
when we reject parts of ourselves bc we do not do it well, or culture might reject
personal projection of the shadow
exaggerated feelings twrds other ppl; accusations we to become extremely angered by; project -> recollect -> accept
shadows in daily life
-personal projection of shadow

-other sources, such as humor

-collective shadow



neofreudians shifted to
a more cultural influence
in comparison to freudian theory, adler puts
much more emphasis on conscious
erickson: what is expced with one child may not transfer over to the next child bc
there is a beief that children get better adjusted as they go from oldest to youngest
Erickson: trauma theory
trauma involves a loss of meaning of oneself -> change perception of life, meaning, etc
ego psychology - erikson - components
1 ego as a mediator that performs constructive tasks
2 involved in establishing identity
3 satisfying need for mastery over the environ
4 identity = complex inner state incl sense of individuality, uniqueness, wholeness, and continuity of past and future


feminine psychology

horney - need for the field

-psyoas tend to see women a inferior bc it was dvlped in a male dominated subject
-not penis envy, but womb envy
-this envy -> oppressing women

what cultural factors did horney use to conteract penis envy?
women do not want penis, they was the privilege that comes with it
what did horney regard as overvaluation of love for women
women trained to overvalue love with men, so they find and keep rxs

not supported by the fact that women are generally happier in rxs than men

horney eventually dropped feminine psychology for gender neutrality. why?
-all suffer in own way; men have privilege, but also have pressure
-culture so intermixed that it is difficult to come to clarity with differences
-we are more sim than different

cultural competition

horney

certain vulnerabilities in setting up competition; can evoke negativity in how indivs define themselves
according to horney, anxiety is
natural; ie, it is natural that child has anxiety about being alone in the world

however, anxiety can be increased or decreased bc of culture

despised self

horney

sim to shadow/conditional regard; shortcomings and inferiority
real self

horney

inner core of self that is based on evals by others
actual self
partic phys person not based on evals by others
ideal self

horney

like cog construct of possible self
real self

mature theory - horney

set of intrinsic potentialities, incl temperament, predisposition, talent, etc IF environ supports you
task of therapy

horney

-imp not to try to solve issues by simply trying to resolve negative side effect; must tackle actual issue
-patient must do growing; t-pist cannot force it
personifications

henry stack sullivan

mental images we have of the self and others; parents, in their own anxiety, tend to pass anxiety onto children -> children cannot cope -> selective inattention
selective inattn

henry stack sullivan

simply not paying attention to anxiety provoking situations
sullivan - 3 categories of self image
good me: feel good abt and are rewarded for

bad me: things abt self avoided, not rewarded, associated with anxiety

not me: aspects so threatening that we dissociate them - this takes En



Fromm and anxiety dt cultural political forces
spread of democracy and move away from futile system -> freedom creates anxiety dt personal choice (reqs psy En); not just choice that is daunting, but the possibility that you can make the wrong decision
mechanisms of escape from anxiety

fromm

authoritarianism: fuse to authoity/try to become authority

destructiveness: if I killed her, it was bc I loved her too much

automon conformity: selling out to establishmt/become cultural pattern

-all maladaptive





positive freedom

fromm

embracing freedom; can be done with increased acceptance of ambiguity with what is good/right -> individuation; can also be dvlpd through spontaneity
reality anxiety

freud

response to perceived threat in real world -> aware of emotional rxn
moral anxiety

freud

brought abt by superego ir to id impulses that violate the superego strict moral code -> guilt
coping strategies

neofreudians

refer to these effort to deal with anxiety they expce in the face of a perceived threat; countless exist; women use more; tend to dvlp stable arsenal of strategies
avoidance strategies may help in short run

support/limits

ie ignore rx problems during finals week, but advantages may be lmtd to mild stressors that are partially under indivs control
problems with avoidance strategies

research

students that exercise more avoidance strategies more likely to use alcohol and P in delinquent bxs
when might solution-focused strategies be best
when situation is clear and controllable
when might emotion-focused strategies be best
when situation cannot be changed
coping flexibility
ability to know when it is best t employ a certain type of strategy
frustration aggression hypothesis

original

aggression is always a consequence of frustration. Occurrence of aggressive bx always presupposes existence of frustration. The existence of frustration always leads to some form of aggression.
catharsis and aggression
catharsis marks the end of aggression; aggression no longer needed bc catharsis resolves tension
even though aggression is a result of frustration, we do not see more outright aggressive rxns bc
frustration sometimes leads to indirect expressions of aggression (sa displacement, sublimation, etc)
research: increased stress/frustration ->
increased likelihood to aggression and increased aggression lvl when ppl do aggress
only variable for lvl of aggression is not frustration, but also
unpleasantness
triggered displacement aggression
when person already frustrated, and someone frustrates them further, their rxn will be proportionately larger than the relatively small offense
why does aggression actually increase (not decrease, as according to catharsis theory) when one already acts aggressively?
acting aggressively may -> disinhibition; aggression breeds aggression may be dt providing aggressive cues; or, if cathartic release feels good, aggression may be reinforced
describe anxious ambivalent infant rxn
mothers not attentive to child needs -> child is anxious when mother leaves
avoidant rx infant rxn
mothers not responsive, child responds with emotional detachment
the four model of attachment also includes
disoriented/fearful (high on fear of abandonment, high on fear of closeness)
adults w secure attachment style tend to be
happier in romantic rxs; tend to get and stay married
secure attachments are most likely to characterize rxs with great deal of
love, strong commitment, and trust
avoidant style in adult rxs
struggle with feelings of jealously and intimacy problems, less likely to show affection/share intimacy; heightened when separated
anxious-ambivalent attachment in adulthood
fall in love many time but have difficulty finding happiness they long for; afraid of losing partner so give into wishes io to appease hi.her; heightened stress when separated from partner
may be possible to change attachmt styles if
one enters into a secure rx
adult attachmt styles -empirical support
consistency on self-report measures btwn infant and adulthood
revised frustration-aggression hypothesis
1 frustration -> aggression only to the degree it is perceived unpleasant
2 certain thoughts increase/decrease likelihood of acting aggressively (if judged deliberate/hostile/accidental)
3 any unpleasant aversive event can -> aggression esp if frustrated

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