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Chemistry 08-09 Midterm

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Precipitation Double Replacement
AB (aq) + XY (aq) --> AY (aq) + XB (s) forms one precipitate (solid)
Limiting Reactant
the reactant that controls the quantity of product that can be formed in a chemical reaction
Atomic Mass
mass of an atom of an element in atomic mass units
Mole
amount of a substance that contains 6.02 x 10^23 particles
Octet Rule
rule based on the assumption that atoms form bonds to achieve a noble gas electron configuration
Solubility Rule 2
All ammonium compounds are soluble
Solubility Rule 3
All nitrates are soluble
Endothermic
energy is on the left side of the equation, can be noticed by a cold feeling
Nonmetal Reactivity
tendency of nonmetal atoms to gain electrons in a chemical reaction
Solubility Rule 1
All Group 1 compounds are soluble
Ionic Compound
a combination of atoms, each with opposite charge of eachother, usually a alkali or alkaline earth metal with a gas
Ammonium
NH4+
Aluminum
Al+3
Acid Base Double Replacement
Acid + Base --> Salt + Water, acid has H, base has OH
Valence Electron
electrons in the outermost orbitals, often involved in chemical bonding
Sulfate
SO4-2
Nonpolar Covalent Bond
bond in which electrons are equally shared by two nuclei
Excess Reactant
the reactant that is left over after reacting with the limiting reactant
Metallic Character
measure of conductivity of electricity, and tendency to lose electrons in a chemical reaction
Carbonate
CO3-2
Neutron
uncharged particle found in the nucleus of an atom
Acids
HCl Hydrochloric Acid, H2SO4 Sulfuric Acid, HNO3 Nitric Acid
Nitrate
NO3-
Halogen Single Replacement
A + BC --> BA + C if A is a halogen
Electron
elementary particle with negative electric charge
Oxidation
process in which an ion becomes more positively charged
Polarity
polar and nonpolar molecules, polar molecules are dipoles, they have a permanent and even distribution of charge, one end of the molecule has a partial positive charge and the other end has a partial negative charge
Decomposition Reaction
chemical change in which a compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances AB --> A + B
Group 16
O and S -2
Hydroxide
OH-
Anion
negative ion
Exothermic
energy is on the right side of the equation, can be noticed by heat
Electronegativity
measure of attraction an atoms has for a pair of shared electrons
Cation
positive ion
Polar Covalent Bond
equivalent covalent bond that has a dipole
Mixture
matter that can be separated into component parts through physical processes
Potential Energy
energy an object has because of its position
Principal Energy Level
number used to describe an electron in an orbital, n=?
Avogadro's Number
number of particles in a mole 6.02 x 10^23
Group 17
Halogens -1
Electron Configuration
representation of the ordered series of orbitals occupied by electrons in an atom
Frequency
number of waves that pass a point per unit of time
Molecular Formula
formula for molecular compounds indicating total atoms of each element in a compound
Alkali Metals
first column on the left with a charge of +1
Alkaline Earth Metals
second column on the left with a charge of +2
Electromagnetic Wave
product of a combination of electrical and magnetic fields traveling at the speed of light
Group 2
Alkaline Earth Metals +2
Element
substances composed of a single type of atom
Phosphate
PO4-3
First Ionization Energy
amount of energy needed to remove an ion from the outer level of a gaseous atom
Ionic Bond
chemical bond formed by an electrostatic attraction between a cation and anion
Ion
particle that has an electrical charge
Atomic Radius
the distance from the nucleus and the orbital, positive is smaller than negative
Sulfuric Acid
H2SO4
Stoichiometry
study of the amount of substances produced and consumed in chemical reactions
Group 15
N and P -3
Polyatomic Ion
a group of atoms with a charge
Molarity
concentration of a solution in moles per liter
Reduction
process in which an ion becomes less positively charged
Molecular Compound
a compound composed of a certain amount of each atom in the compound
Hydrochloric Acid
HCl
Photon
packet of light energy
Metal Single Replacement
A + BC --> AC + B if A is a metal
Croup 1
Alkali Metals +1
Mass Number
total number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus
Molecular Geometry
the description of a shape of a molecule or polyatomic ion in two or three dimensions
Empirical Formula
formula that represents the smallest whole number ratio of atoms in compound
Energy Sublevels
certain definite energy states of an atom, spdf
Synthesis Reaction
combination of two or more elements to form a compound A + B --> AB
Halogen
group 7a with high electronegativity
Noble Gases
far right column with no charge, most stable by themselves, cannot form a compound
Wavelength
distance between to similar point in a set of waves
Transition Metals
all metals that are not alkali or alkaline earth metals, multivalent
Nitric Acid
HNO3
Orbital
region in space in which there is a high probability of finding an electron
Isotope
atoms of the same element that contain different numbers of neutrons, consequently having different atomic masses
Combustion
exothermic reaction when a substance combines with oxygen, always producing CO2 and water CxHy + O2 --> CO2 + H2O
Intermolecular Forces
the forces of attraction between neutral compounds of molecular compounds (like H2O and PCL3), neutral diatomic molecules of diatomic elements, neutral atoms of nonmetal elements, they consist of weak forces, they can also be broken down into three categories including dipole-dipole forces, hydrogen bonds and dispersion forces
Proton
positively charged particle found in all atoms, located in the nucleus
Atomic Number
number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of a given element
Zinc Ion
Zn+2
Molar Mass
mass of one mole of any element
Silver Ion
Ag+

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