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Geophysics chapter 4

Terms

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charge of an atom's nucleus
positive
conversion factor
a ratio that is derived from the equality of two different units and that can be used to convert from one unit to another
electron
a subatomic particle that has a negative charge outside of the nucleus
metalloid/semiconductor
an element or compound that conducts electric current better than an insulator but not as well was a conductor does
proton
a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
average atomic mass
the weighted average of the masses of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element
non-metal
an element that conducts heat and electricity poorly
periodic law
the law that states that the repeating chemical and physical properties of elements change periodically with the atomic numbers of the elements
noble gas family
an unreactive element of group 18 of the periodic table, they exist as single atoms instead of as molecules, has 8 valence electrons
Avagadro's constant
= 6.022 x 10 to the 23/mol; the number of particles in 1 mol
alkaline earth family
less reactive than alkali metals but still react to form positive ions with a 2+ charge, has 2 valence electrons
semiconductor/metalloid family
an element or compound that conducts electric current better than an insulator but not as well as a conductor does
Molar mass
the number of grams per 1 mole find in periodic table
family
vertical column of elements in the periodic table
period
a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
atomic mass unit
a unit of mass that describes the mass of an atom or molecule
metal family
an element that is shiny and conducts heat
mole
the SI unit used to measure the amount of a substance whose number of particles is the same as the number of atoms of carbon in 12g of carbon 12
alkiali metal family
one of the elements of group 1 of the periodic table, soft and shiny, reacts violently with water, has 1 valence electrons
nucleus
an atom's central region which is made up of protons and neutrons
halogen family
one of the elements of group 17 of the periodic table, has 7 valence electrons
non-metal family
found on the right side of the periodic table and include elements in groups 13-16 and all the elements in groups 17 + 18
ion
at atom that has gained or lost electrons to have a charge
transition metal family
less reactive than sodium or calcium but can lost electrons to form positive ions too, some can form as many as four differently charged cations because of their complex arrangement of electrons, usually 2 electrons but up to 4
neutron
a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
orbital
region in an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons
isotope
atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons
valance electrons
the number of electrons in the outermost energy level

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