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Chapter 3 Atomic Structure

Terms

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cation
an ion with a positive charge
electron
negatively charged particle moving around the outside area of the nucleus
proton
postively charged substomic particle in the nucleus
ion
an atom or group of atoms htat has lost or gained one or more electrons and therefore has a net electric charge
semiconductors
the elementst that are intermediate conductors of heat and electricity
noble gases
the unreactive gaseos elements located in group 18 of the periodic table
Group
a vertical colun of elements in the periodice table
periodic law
properties of elements tend to change in a regular pattern when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number or number of protons in their nucleus
metals
the elements that are good conductors of heat and electricity
atomic mass unit
a quantity equaol to 1/12 of the mass of carbon-12 atom
alkali metal
the highly reactive metallic elements located in Group 1 of the periodic table
orbital
a region in an atom where there is a high probability of finding electrons
energy level
any of the psiible energies an electron may have in an atom
nucleus
the center of an atom made up of protons and neutrons
nonmetals
the elements that usually poor conductors of heat and electricity
anioan
an ion with a negative charge
molar mass
the mass in grams of 1 mole of a substance
ionization
the process of adding electrons to or removing electrons from an atom or group of atoms
neutron
neutral charged particle located in the nucleus
mole
the Si base unit that describes the amount of a substance
transition metals
the metallic element located in Group 3-12 of the periodic table
alkaline-earth metals
the reactive metallic elements located in Group 2 of the periodice table
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
average atomic mass
the weighted average of the massses of all naturally occurring isotpoes of an element
Avogadro's Number
the number of particles in 1 mole which equal 6.02 X 10 to the 23 power
isotopes
any atoms having the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
valence electrons
electron in the outermost energy level of an atom
mass number
the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
halogens
the highly reactive elements located in Group 17 of the peiodic table

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