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socials 11 Geograhy


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"dust bowl" of the 1930s led to
improved farming techniques. Farmers planted trees to form wind breaks, adopted contour ploughing, and used wheat stubble and straw left after harvesting to return nutrients to the soil and help stop wind erosion.
2 reasons for increased population growth in the 18th and 19th century:
1. Increase in medical technology 2. Food
3 likely reasons for the later falling birth rate are
Economic developmnt, the move to cities, and the rising standards of living
80% of the world's diseases are caused in some way by
contaminated water
A country with high dependency ratio is bad/good
Bad (and vice versa)
A strong indicator of the economic health of a country is
the ratio of dependents to those of working age
A sustainable city should balance 3 factors:
Economy, Environment, Community health
Agenda 21
A statement of action to encourage the development of a sustainable world economy
An underground layer of rock that allows water to flow through it
Aquifers are good because ____ but ____
the farmer can pump the water whenever he needs it and it is cheaper to access than surface water; but aquifers do not recharge rapidly
Arid zones
Land that gets ~10cm of rain annually. On fringes of deserts
Automobile cities
Expand outward in all directions from city core. Roadways link the urban functions that are separated into distince zones
Basic activities
Activities that form a town (industries, tourism, military facilities)
The variety of life on Earth
The zone of earth, water, and air in which we live
Birth rate - death rate =
Natural Increase
Births - deaths + immigrants - emigrants =
increase of decrease in population
Canada's annual crude birth rate:
11 per 1000
Canada's annual crude death rate:
7 per 1000
Canada's natural increase:
6 per 1000 = 0.6%
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)
Distributes aid projects through UN agencies, directly to governments, and through NGOs (Non-governmental organizations)
The collection of statistics about people and activities
Chemicals, especially _____, which have done __% of he damage, are destroying the ozone layer
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 80
Children face the greatest risks here
Cities account for __% of the world's use of fossil fuels resulting in population and immoral excess
Age intervals of 5 years
Comprehensive Planned Unit
Tearing down old buildings and constructing a planned urban unit (Granville)
Countries with a growth rate below replacement level have a
contracting population
Countries with BR and DR in balance have a
stable population
Countries with high BR and have many children have an:
expanding populatoin
Crude birth rate
Dividing the number of births in one year by population and multiplying it by 100
crude death rate
Dividing the number of deaths in one year by population and multiplying it by 100
Crude densities
Calculated by dividing the population of a country by its area
Cause of global warming because the forests absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and give off oxygen. Forest removal can affect wind patterns, precipitation levels, and temperatures far beyond the forests themselves. Largest clearing is in Brazil.
Demographers are most interested in statistics because it helps them:
predict and explain changes in society
Demographers divide population into 3 age groups:
Children (up to 15), working adults (16-64), and adults (65+)
Demographers use raters per ____ when figuring population change
The statistical study of human populations
Dependency ratio
Proportion of the population that is beign supported by the working age group
Land turning into desert
Permanently inhabited places
the number of children each women can have
Fertility rate needed to replace a country's population
For last 6 years of 20th century, Canada ranked ___ overall on HDI (Human Development Index)
Formula for dependency ratio
(Young dependents[0-15] + Old dependents[65+]) / People of working Age [16-64] (then times whole thing by 100)
GDP (gross domestic product)
The total value of all goods and services produced in a country in one year
Buying up and refurbishing formerly run down areas
Global Warming
Caused the increased number of heat waves and rising incidence of violent storms. Polar regions are melting and sea levels are rising as a result
Underground water that is stored in aquifers
How Canada measures poverty:
When you are spending more than 56% of a person's or family's income on the necessities of life, such as food, shelter, and clothing
How do you find the doubling time of population? (rule of 70)
70 divided by natural increase
How is Canada's population doing?
BR and DR has been dropping steadily in the past 30 years, population is getting older. Trying to attract young, skilled workers and entrepreneurs to offset the aging workforce.
How US measures poverty:
Cost of minimum adequate diet multiplied by 3 to allow for other expenses. Approximate per capita income of $11 a day
Hyper-arid zone
Land that get little or no rainfall
The process by which population density in an urban center is increased by building on waste land or underused land
Key to improving status of women is
Kyoto Protocol 1997
The agreement in 1997 to lower emission of gases by 6% that contribute to global warming by 2012. Countries not meeting their reduction targets can buy credits from other countries (likely less developed) that had emossions below their allotted levels
How land is used in an area (housing/business)
Large-scale migrations affect structure of population by
age and sex
Main causes of shortages in water:
Falling groundwater tables and diversion of surface supplies. They threaten world agricultural population
Measuring of PNR based on 5 factors
Mortality rates of children under 5, % of children moderately or severly underweight, # of children who do not attend primary school, risks from armed conflict, and risks from HIV/AIDS
Montreal Protocol 1897
All industrial nations agree to cut their use of CFCs. Allow countries of developing world to use CFCs until 2000 because substitutes are expensive
Most immigrants are
young and generally single males
Most pollution orinigates from
municipal, agricultural, and industrial sources
Multi-national companies (MNC)
A large company that operates in more than one country
multilateral aid
Aid funded by a number of governments and usually invovled large-scale programs
Multiplier Effect
The chain reaction by which the growth or decline of an economic activity results in the creation or lessening of wealth
Net migration rate
Number of immigrants minus the number of emigrations
New Urbanism
The trend to create liveable, high density downtown living
Non basic activies
Acitivites that exist to meet the needs of the local population (grocery stores, parks)
Nutrional Density
Measure of how much nutrition in calories can be produced from the land
Only about __% of the land area of the Earth can be used for growing crops
Only __% of the water in the world is fresh water
Organic cities
To fit the physical landscape. Urban functions blend together, all shops, homes, and workplaces close to each other
Per Capita GDP
The average income figure for each person in a country that is calculated by dividing the gross domestic product by the population
Permanently frozen soil
Planned cities
To keep urban functions apart. Separate places for homes, shops, and industries
Population density
The number of people in a given area
Population Pyramids
Graph that shows the age and sex structure of a population
pull factors
the (good) factors that pull people into urbanized areas
Purpose of the HDI
To give a crude indication of different levels of economic and social development among the countries of the world
push factors
the (bad) factors that push people out of where they live
Quality of life:
Health, levels of nutrition, life expectanty, literacy, status of women and children, freedom of expression, economic freedom, and the right of a safe and clean environment
Semi-arid zones
Where most people live. ~30 cm of annual rain. The most endangered zone
Physical characteristics of the land on which the city is built
The relationship between the city and its wider surroundings
Soil gets dry and becomes cracked and hard, and all the ____ moves to the surface
Some problems because of rapid city growth:
Pollution, disease, space
Stage 1 of DTM
Early Expanding/Primitive. High BR and high DR. Small/slow population growth, small natural increase. Ex: any pre-history country
Stage 2 of DTM
Expanding. High BR and decreasing DR. Technology and largest population growth/highest natural increase. Ex: Kenya
Stage 3 of DTM
Late Expanding. Decreasing BR and low DR. Largest population growth/highest natural increase. High level of technology, economic development, more education, increased status for women. Ex: China
Stage 4 of DTM
Stable. Decreasing BR and low DR. Excellent health care, Women have freedom, good technology, economic development, birth control. Ex: Canada, US
Stage 5 of DTM
Zero Population. decreasing BR and low DR. Economic development. Women choose careers over children. Ex: Austria, Japan, Germany, Hungary
Implies careful management of resources so that they are sustainable
Structural Adjustment Program (SAP)
A program that required an indebted country to restructure is economy by encouraging foreign investment, increasing exports, and turning government services over to the private sector in reutnr for loans from the World Bank and International Monetary Fund
Sustainable cities
Urban centers where decisions made do not degrade the quality of life for future inhabitants
Technique of land reclamation:
Covering the soil with organic matter (mulch) which protects the land. It holds moisture and prevents erosion(and evaporation) and stops rain splash erosion and dramatically reduces run off
Cutting steps into the side of a valley. Helps prevent soil erosion and drought by conserving water and reducing runoff
The Age structure of Populations helps us understand
the reasons for changes in populations
The Demographic Revolution
Rapid increase in population growth after 1750 because of decreasing death rates. Increased food production so that people had better diets, hygiene and medical knowledge improved.
The Demographic Transition Model
Shows changes over a period of time in 3 elements (birth and death rates and trends in overall population numbers). Assumes that all countries will go through an urbanization stage
The enviromental impact of a poplaion is based on what 3 factors?
1. consumption rate 2. technology 3. population size
The Great Lakes alone conatin __% of all the surface fresh water on Earth
The Rule of Seventy
Convenient way to express exponential population growth is to use the length of time it would take or a population to double in size = 70 divided by growth rate (in percent) per year
The world's population is growing at an annual rate of ____
The ____ system uses much less water than food irrigation
Drop irrigation
Tied aid
Aid with strings attached
Transit cities
Made up of sub-centers linked to a city core by transportaion services
UN ranks its member countries according to 3 measures
adult literacy, life expectancy, and the per capita GDP
Under Five Mortality Rate (U5MR)
The principal measure of human development used by UNICEF. MOre than half of the under 5 deaths in developing countries are due to malnutrition. (Diarrhoea and malaria=imp. causes)
UNICEf pulished Progress of Nations Report (PNR) on the welfare of children. PNR:
launched a new child-risk index that measures the risk of children in countries worldwide on a scale of 0 to 100
Urban functions:
Defense, transportation, resource extration, head of navigation
What is responsible for change in the soil? (not global warming)
The way people manage the land
What policy did China give out to reduce birth rates?
The one-child policy
Which zone is the most endangered?
Semi-arid zones
Why has urbanization been a recent trend in developing countries more so than developed countries?
The process of urbanization is mostly complete in developed countries and has shifted to developing countries.
Why is the population of cities growing 1.5 times faster than overall world population growth?
Alot of people are coming in to the cities
__% of the fresh water is in the form of ice caps and glaciers, and much of the remaining amount is underground
___ is the only gas in the atmosphere that can block the ultraviolet (UV) rays of the sun

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