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UNIT 13 History


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Postwar Consensus
Two pillars: self congratulation and anxiety about communism. "Don't rock the boat," no extremism. CONFORMITY. Eisenhower
Dynamic Conservatism
conservative about money but liberal when it comes to humans. Eisenhower
St. Lawrence Seaway and Interstate Highway System
Canal between Montreal and Lake Erie; built to trigger economic development in the Midwest. Highway system across country. Eisenhower
Termination Policy for Native Americans
forced assimilation of Native Americans into dominant/white culture. Ended their benefits, such as reservations. Eisenhower
"Military-Industrial Complex"
Eisenhower said the U.S. was too focused on developing the military and soon it would become our sole international weapon. It would replace diplomacy and we would become too agressive.
Joseph McCarthy
extremely anti-communist. Led crusades against communists. Accused a lot of people of being communist. Truman
Truman's Loyalty Probes
Truman investigated the loyalty of government workers. Those deemed "disloyal" were discharged and blacklisted
Truman. If a government worker was deemed "disloyal", they could no longer work in the government for fear that they would pass information onto the communists
Alger Hiss & Whittaker Chambers
Hiss was tried for passing classified documents onto communist spies. Truman and Acheson were on his side. Americans became suspicious of the loyalty of Democrats
Dean Acheson
Democratic Secretary of State. Came to Hiss' defense. Truman
Internal Security (McCarran) Act
1950. Required members of communist organizations to register with the government and prohibited them from holding defense jobs or traveling abroad. Truman
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
arrested for conspiracy to commit espionage. This was good for McCarthy's anti-communist campaign. Denied clemency, executed. Eisenhower
Army-McCarthy Hearings
McCarthy accused the US army of shielding and promoting communism. Showcased the Senator's abusive treatment of witnesses. Signified the end of McCarthyism. Eisenhower
38th Parallel
Korean War. The line dividing north and south Korea. N.K. crossed it and began the Korean War.
Kim Il Sung
North Korea communist leader
Syngman Rhee
South Korea president
General Douglas MacArthur
led troops in South Korea. Pushed North Koreans back across the 38th parallel. Denounced concept of limited war.
Truman's Firing of MacArthur
MacArthur denounced limited war and hinted that the president was practicing appeasement. Truman's popularity sagged slightly as a result
John Foster Dulles
Eisenhower Secretary of State. Followed McCarthyism. Kicked many talented people out of office. Liberation instead of containment. Airpower and nuclear weaponry.
Containment vs. Liberation
Eisenhower. free Eastern European nations from Soviet control rather than trying to control the Soviet advances
Massive Retaliation
administration's phrase for nuclear obliteration of the Soviet state of China if they take agressive actions. Eisenhower
The prevention of hostile Soviet behavior. Eisenhower
not backing out of a crisis, even if it meant taking a nation to the brink of war. ie: Cuban Missile Crisis. Eisenhower
Domino Theory
small, weak, neighboring nations (of communist nations) would fall to communism like a row of dominoes if the US didn't keep them "propped up"
CIA Actions
covert operations to destroy Third World governments. Instrument of foreign policy. "Plausible deniability". Eisenhower
U.S. Information Agency
Voice of American (European radio station that the US used as a tool for propaganda). Eisenhower
first earth-orbitting satellite. Triggered US to invest more in math and science education
Missile Gap
Surprisingly in America's favor. The gap between the two nation's missile advantages
Mutual Assured Destruction
deterence policy. One country destroys the otehr, tehy get destroyed in return. Eisenhower
U.S. Occupation of Japan
wanted to reconstruct postwar Japan and make it a democracy. Democratic constitution, women's voting rights, revitalized economy, and destroyed nuceal weapons. CITY ON THE HILL. Truman
U.S. Nonrecognition of People's Republic of China
Truman administration was alarmed by Sino-American friendship treaty. Didn't want "China lobby" to say U.S. had lost to China
Cuban Revolution/Fidel Castro
Cubans resented U.S. domination, so they sought Soviet help to curb American influence, wanted to break away from American grasp. Fidel Castro led the revolution and allied with Soviets. US sent CIA agents to mess things up and kill Fidel, but they failed. Eisenhower
Operation Bootstrap
Puerto Rico was a good place for tourism and industrial development. Attracted investments from large US corporations
Eisenhower Doctrine
result of Suez Canal crisis. Eisenhower wanted anticommunist Middle-east and oil, so he sought to befriend them. Other allies didn't consult with him about the Suez invasion and he got angry. To improve deteriorating Western position in Middle East and protect American interests, wrote doctrine. U.S. can intervene if any government threatened by communism asked for help. Deepened third world hostility toward US
Truman's Civil Rights Record
Truman felt a moral obligation to help the Southern blacks and was disturbed by the revival of the KKK. Tried to pass antilynching and anti-segregation legislation. Fair employment and racial desegregation of the armed forces
NAACP Legal Defense Fund
judicial support of civil rights. wanted to destroy "separate but equal" doctrine
Brown vs. Board of Education
Eisenhower. resulted in the revokation of "separate but equal" school systems
White Citizens Council
used money to resist southern school desegregation
Little Rock, Arkansas
Faubus ordered National Guard to keep blacks out of the public school even though the president ordered the black kids to go. Eisenhower dispatched army men to protect black students
Montgomery Bus Boycott/Rosa Parks
Rosa Parks arrested. led to MLK jr and others to arrange the bus boycott. lasted a year. finally bus company caved. bus desegregation. Eisenhower
Martin Luther King Jr.
led Montgomery bus boycott. first president of SCLC. major leader in civil rights movement
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
coordinated civil rights activities
Greensboro Sit-Ins
students refused to leave diners even though they wouldnt be served. non-violent protest. Eisenhower
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committe
challenged the Status quo. sit-ins
Kennedy's New Frontier
sought to end racial discrimination, federal aid to educatino, medical care for the elderly, and government action to stop the suffereing country that was receeding
sit-ins, freedom rides. Many other non-violent civil rights actions
March on Washington
Kennedy. happened after Kennedy requested legislation to outlaw raciol discrimination. Marched knowing Kennedy was on their side
Civil Rights Act of 1964
LBJ. outlawed racial discrimination in public accomidations and employment. Government can withhold funds from those who didn't comply
Election of 1964
Johnson's win signified that there was an oppurtunity to push through further reform was available.
Voting RIghts Act of 1965
LBJ. empowered the attorney general to supervise voter registration in areas where less than half the minority residents were registered.
Great Society
LBJ. Housing and Urban development, Medicare and Medicaid, educational funding, 1968 civil rights act, Indian Bill of Rights. Programs to finish Roosevelt and Truman's unmet goals
The Warren Court
LBJ. disposed by political conviction and a belief in judicial activism to play a central role in the resurgence of liberalism. Transformed criminal justice system.
The War on Poverty
LBJ. provided money to end poverty. included Job Corps, Project Headstart, and Upward Bound. Alleviated hunger and suffering. "TRickle down", more new jobs
Nation Building
Kennedy. used to get a "peaceful revolution". Sought to help developing nations through the early stages of nationhood with aid programs aimed at improving agriculture, transportation, and communications.
used to defeat revolutionaries who challenged Third World governemtns that were friendly with the US. Kennedy
Flexible Response
capability to make any kind of war. Kennedy
Berlin Wall
Kennedy. soviets erected a wall to halt the exodus of east germans into west berlin
Bay of Pigs Invasion
plan: cuban exiles would land and secure a beachhead, cubans would revolt agains castro and welcome new American government. plan failed. made castro more popular. this caused cubans to suspect another US attack, and thus turned to soviets for help
Cuban Missile Crisis
Castro was hostile about the US threat to Cuba's independence. soviet didn't like US interfereing with only pro-communist Latin American country. Both countries agreed to put nuclear missiles in Cuba that were able to hit the US. Ended when US agreed to stop threatening Cuban independence and Soviets left CUba. Kennedy
The Affluent Society
name to describe postwar economic boom
baby boom
cause and effect of prosperity. gave business to builders, manufacturers, and school systems
three cornerstones of the Postwar Boom
construction (highways, suburbs, schools), automobiles (to get to suburbs), and defense
Federal Housing Administration
gave mortgage insurance to those who really needed it
Highway Act
approved funds for a long stretch of interstate highway. Eisenhower
referred to the almost uninterrupted metropolitan complex. As cities grew due to booms, they expanded into each other and formed a giant megalopolis
southern third of the US. Site of the search for affluence
brings together companies in unrelated industries as a hedge against instability in a particular market
two unions joined. union membership grew slightly postwar
"Silent Spring" by Rachel Carson
wrote about how DDT killed wildlife. Made many Americans aware of the cost that human conquest was having on the environment. Federal government finally banned DDT
GI Bill of Rights
provided money for war veterans to go to college. Pushed women out of college
National Defense Education Act
funded enrichment of math and science programs
Billy Graham
preached in stadiums nationwide. Used TV to broadcast to a larger audience
Margaret Mead
wrote about the contradictory roles of women in society
Dr. Benjamin Spock
wrote a book that urged mothers to always think of their children first
Philip Wylie
"Momism". Said mothers smothered their children and shielded them too much to the point that the children couldnt detach from the mothers
Alfred Kinsey
wrote two books about sexual behavior: one on men and one on women. The women statistics shocked America
Youth Subculture
rock 'n roll. movies. consumerism
beat generation
Invisible Man, On THe Road, rejected literary convention and conformity
Occupational Segregation
women were neglected and given low paying jobs
Operation wetback
federal program to find and deport illgal aliens
Michael Harringtons "The OTher America"
a book on the poverty in America. Shocked Americans about they poverty because they were very much teh Affluent society

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