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General College Zoology Exam Notes : covers Darwinism and Taxonomy


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Comparitive Biochemistry
compares DNA and proteins to establish ancestory
5 Major Parts of Darwin's Theory
Natural Selection, Perpetual Change, Common Decent, Multiplication of Species, and Gradualism
idea that is takes a long period of time to observe change
Jean Baptiste de Lamark
first to propose mechanism for evolution (transformationalism)
refers to characteristic derived by evolution
characteristics shared within a clad
Charles Lyell
Geologist, responsible for concepts of gradualism, nondirectionalism and uniformitarianism.
Phylogenetic Species Concept
believes in distinct groups of measurable organisms in which there is a pattern of ancestory (splitting)
Biological Species Concept
idea that individuals within a species are unique and may vary
radial cleavage in developmental stage
organism that contains larval characteristics as an adult
different allel forms found in a population
the idea that characteristics are aquired during an organism's life and then passed down. (aka Lamarkism)
Taxonomic Characters
used to determine relationships between groups
Micro evolution
observes genetic change in population
refers to the evolutionary history of the organism
Dr. John Lightfoot
added to Usher's theory that the Earth was created Oct. 23rd 4004 BC at 9:00 am
Founder event
(allopatric) group of individuals dispersed unususally by weather or major event
spiral clevage in developmental stage
Darwin visited the Gallopogos Islands in...
idea that there is no preordained direction things are going; you may look backward but not forward
Willi Henning
developed Cladistics in the 1950's
Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection published in
Charles Darwin
1st to come up with idea that explained what caused evolution that applies
idea that organisms change over time in accordance to environment
set of genes expressed abnormally in another part of the body
allopatric speciation
formation of a species due to isolation (geographic or behavioral)
Only level of natural classification
August Weissmen
developed Neo Darwinisn
3 Basic Characterisitcs of a Species
1. common ancestory 2. uniqueness 3. ability to interbreed and reproduce
Darwin's 5 Natural Selcetion Observations
1. Organisms have high reproductive capability 2. Natural populations remain fairly constant 3. Natural resources are limited 4. Individuals vary 5. These varitaions are inheritable
Voyage of Beagle ended in....
Punctuated Equilibrium
states that evolutionary processes can be fairly rapid (10,000-100,000 yrs) w/ long periods of stability.
Vicariant Event
(allopatric) splits species geologically
Typological Species Concept
idea that species don't change
Voyage of the Beagle began on...
Dec 27 1831
non allopatric
formation of a new species with no barrier or disruption by filling of open niches
method of classification that does not include ancestory
What can upset the Hardy Weinburg Equilibrium
Genetic drift, nonrandom breeding, migration, natural selection
type of classification based on phylogeny but doesn't show past events
phylogenetic trees
uses homolgy to help determine ancestory
Comparitive Cytology
compares size and shape of chromosomes to establish ancestory
Heirarchial system
Species, Genus, Family, Order, Class, Phylum, Kingdom
Niles Eldredge and Stephen Gauld
developed Punctuated Equilibrium
Darwinisn was developed by both...
Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace
adaptive radiation
diversification from common ancestor by allopatric or nonallopatric means
Numerical Taxonomy
groups individuals into taxas based on number or shared characteristics establishing no evolutionary trends
past events occured the same way as they do in the present
Evolutionary Species Concept
idea that species may be separated by ancestrial origin (clumping)
Hardy Weinburg Equilibrium
states heredity alone doesn't produce evolutionary change (mathematical concept)
common function but no common ancestory
classification that includes speciation by phylogeny
refers to ancestrial state of a characteristic
Marco Evolution
Traditional study of evolution (speciation, adaptation, phylogentic relationship)
Van Buear
opposed Haeckle saying that developmental stages of organisms can be similar without being related to evolution
refers to organisms individual developmental stages
Approximate age of the Earth
5-6 Billion yrs old
Multiplication of Species
concept that evolutionary processes produce new species by splitting and trasforming older species
Species Criteria
1. Common descent 2. smallest unique grouping 3. reproductive community
Perpetual Change
the use of the fossil record to observe change in organisms over time
refers to sharing of a characterist between the ancestor and descendent
Both Darwin and Wallace's ideas were published in
Darwin wrote a manuscript and sent it with money to his wife to be published in....
localized only
Arch Bishop Usher
dated the Earth to be 4004 yrs old based on the biblical dates.
Darwin's Inferences
1. Organisms within a population struggle to survive 2. Individuals with favorable characteristics win 3. Over time natural selection produces more and more individuals w/ favorable characteristics
Comparitive Morphology
compares features and structures to establish ancestory
Wallace sent his manuscript to Darwin in
Thomas Malthus
"Principle of Populations as it affects the Future Improvement of Society (idea that populations grow faster than their resources)
Carolius Linnaeus
"Father of Taxonomy" Wrote "Systema Naturae" and developed the Heirarchial system
common origin and function
Neo Darwinisn
modernized version of Darwinian theory that also includes knowledge of genetics
Common Decent
idea that all forms of life descended from a common ancestor
refers to structures that have the same origin and function
wide spread
thought that traits isolated by natural selection would over time become adversely nonapaptive
Ernest Haeckle
idea of "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny". means that trends in organisms' evolution can be observed during embryonic development

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