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Test #2 for Biology


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What is the cell theory?
1. Cells are the basic unit of life
2. All living organisms are made of one or more cells
3. Cells come from cells
The nucleus is considered ___
A. Alive
B. Not Alive
B. Not Alive
Who coined the term 'cell'?
What was Leewenhook looking at when he called them cells?
Plant cork
What does "alive" mean in terms of a cell?
There is a metabolism, it responds to stimulus, it can reproduce, and it has a plasma membrane.
Cells come from cells through these two processes.
Mitosis and cytokenesis.
Mitosis paired with cytokenesis ____ a form of sexual reproduction.
A. Is not
B. Is
A. Is not
Meiosis paired with Cytokenesis ____ a form of sexual reproduction.
A. Is not
B. Is
B. Is
Life does not arise -- ----. (Spontaneously)
De novo
In the word 'Prokaryote', the prefix 'pro' means what?
In the word 'Prokaryote', the suffix 'karyos' means what?
Prokaryotes lack these.
Prokaryotes came before/after eukaryotes.
How long have prokaryotes been forming on the Earth?
3.5 billion years
If prokaryotes don't have organelles, how do they keep all their functions seperate?
Subcellular compartmentalization along with specialized functions.
So, what are these special functions?
There are unique sequences in the mRNA and there are unique (smaller) ribosomes.
Prokaryotes are/are not sensitive to antibiotics.
They ARE sensitive to antibiotics.
Prokaryote is synonymous with what word?
If something is 'Heterotrophic', it can do what?
Get nutrients from the environment.
"Heterotroph" means what?
If something is 'Autotrophic', it can do what?
Make its own food through photosynthesis.
"Autotroph" means what?
Why do neither mitosis nor meiosis occur in prokaryotes?
Because prokaryotes have no nucleus.
DNA goes by what two other names?
'Mesome' or 'nucleoid'
What are the characteristics and functions of the cell wall?
Protect cell, hydrophilic, not living, made of various molecules (often amino sugars)
What are the characteristics and functions of the plasma membrane?
It is a bilipid layer with protein. It controls what goes in and out of the cell.
What is a protoplast?
All of the cell excluding the cell wall.
What are the characteristics and functions of the cytoplasm?
The main component is H2O, proteins (most are enzymes), DNA, RNA, Ribosomes (protein factories), stored foods (like lipds and carbs), and ions.
What does an autotrophic prokaryote have that a heterotrophic one does not?
Thylakoids are...
The site of photosynthesis. Pigments are embeded into the membrane of thylakoids. Cytochromes in thylakoids gain and lose electrons easily. Thylakoids are a tube (they have a lumen)
In the word "Eukaryote", the prefix "eu" means what?
In the word "Eukaryote", the suffix "karyos" means what?
The characteristics of a Eukaryote are...
They have a nucleus, organelles, and are generally larger than prokaryote cells.
Organelles are beneficial to eukaryotes because they...
Are subcellular compartments, they concentrate reactants, thus making reactions more likely, and they concentrate specific enzymes.
Prokaryotes ____ have a mixing mechanism.
A. Do
B. Might
C. Do not
C. Do not
What are the mixing mechanisms in eukaryotes?
The cytoskeleton and cytoplasmic streaming (cyclosis)
Some prokaryotes violate the size rule and are HUGE. How can they be so big?
The surface area to volume ratio, enzymes are embeded into the membrane which increases the chance of reactants meeting.
What is the name of the prokaryote Dr. Pollack and her husband discovered?
Epulopiscium Fishelsoni
Nucleoli do what?
They are ribosome factories.
Nucleoli are made of what?
Protein and RNA
The nucleus isn't a completely closed up organelle. What are the holes in the nucleus' membrane called?
Nuclear pores
What do nuclear pores do?
They regulate the large things that come in/go out of the nucleus. They are also a protein gate.
The nucleus is surrounded by what kind of membrane?
A double membrane made of TWO lipid bilayers.
DNA is located where in a eukaryote?
In the nucleus
The plasma membrane of a eukaryote has these qualities.
It is selectively permeable and has enzyme activity.
What is the function of rough ER?
It modifies proteins. The ribosomes attached to the rough ER make proteins, the proteins then go into the lumen of the rough ER.
What is the
function of smooth ER?
Lipid Metabolism
There is more smooth ER in drug addicts because smooth ER...
Detoxifies your body.
What is another name for the Golgi Apparatus?
What are the functions of the dictyosome?
It modifies proteins and packages them for transport.
What is the dictyosome made of?
Vesicles and lamella (enzyme-filled sac.)
What is the function of mitochondria?
Cellular respiration
Endosymbiosis means this.
"A life within a life."
A good example of endosymbiosis would be...
The mitochondrion within a eukaryote.
Mitochondria are odd because they do this inside cells.
Cytochrome Oxidase is...
An enzyme with a quaternary structure.
Cytoplasm is defined as...?
All of the cell within the plasma membrane except the nucleus.
Cytoplasm contains what?
Ribosomes, water, free molecules
What "free molecules" does cytoplasm contain?
Enzymes, amino acids, sugar, salts, nucleotides.
How many bilipid layers does a lysosome have?
Vaculoes only occur in what kind of cells?
Plant cells
What is the function of a lysosome?
What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
It helps maintain cell shape, it guides vesciles, and helps in intracellular movement.
What are the three things that make up cytoskeletons?
Microfilamints, intermediate filamints, and Microtubules.
A "centriole" is also referred to as what?
The "Basal Body"
What is the function of the centriole?
Organization of microtubules
A flagellum is what?
An extension of the plasma membrane.
Plant cells differ from animal cells in what ways?
They have a cell wall, they contain plastids, they have a have a vacuole, and there is different terminology.
Golgi Apparatuses are called what in a plant cell?
Lysosomes are called what in a plant cell?
Peroxisomes and Glyoxisomes
Flowering plant cells lack what organelle in their cells?
The cell wall is made of what?
Cellulose and other carbs and proteins.
Is the cell wall permeable?
Yes, extremely.
The chloroplast is a type of what?
What is the function of the chloroplast?
Photosynthesis and starch storage
Chloroplasts have what kind of origin?
Endosymbiotic (It was eaten, but not digested)
What is the stroma?
The site of the Calvin cycle and is also where sugar is made.
What is a vacuole?
A sac of water surrounded by a membrane.
The membrane that surrounds the vacuole has a specific name. What is it?
What are the functions of the vacuole?
Storage of waste, turgor pressure to the cell, and saves on cytoplasm (cause it takes up so much space)
Why is it so cool that the vacuole takes up a lot of space within the cell?
It pushes the organelles together, thus creating more reactions!
What is the function of a flagellum?
Flagellum are also known as what in smaller organisms?
Flagellum do not exist in what types of cells?
Flowering plant cells
Microvilli are not used for motility, they are used for something else. What is it?
Cilia are what?
Lots of short microvilli
Flagella are what?
A few long microvilli
Centriole is also known as MTOC. What does this stand for?
Microtubule Organizing Center
Centrioles are not present in what kind of cells?
Flowering plant cells
All cell membranes have what?
A lipid bilayer
What makes up a bilayer?
Phospholipids are amphipathic. What does this mean?
They have a polar head and a non-polar tail
Double membranes are in three organelles... what are they?
The nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplasts
If proteins are INTEGRAL, then they're...
Embeded in the membrane
If proteins are PERIPHERAL, they are...
Attached to the membrane and slightly embeded.
Some proteins have molecules attached to them. Why?
Cell-to-cell recognition
What is the function of cholesterol (steroids)?
They alter the fluidity of the membrane.
Increased cholesterol = ________ fluidity.
A. Decreased
B. Increased
B. Increased
The membrane is liquid except:
Some proteins are attached to the cytoskeleton and can't move, and some areas are walled off so proteins can only move within that boundary.
What is the function of a tight junction?
Seals tissue, limits the migration of proteins, and molecules that DO enter the cell must cross a plasma membrane.
What are the functions of a desmosome?
It anchors the plasma membrane to the cytoskeleton and allows intercellular flow.
What is the function of a gap junction?
Intercellular communication and protein channel between cells.
Diffusion is...
High concentration to low concentration.
Diffusion ALSO is...
Random molecular motion that is sensitive to temperature and agitation.
What is the direction of diffusion?
Both ways- water diffuses into sugar and sugar diffuses into water.
Osmosis is...
Diffusion of water across a differentially permeable membrane.
Osmosis leads to _____ of cells with cell walls.
Cells without cell walls will burst if they are _______ to their environment.
A. Hypertonic
B. Hypotonic
A. Hypertonic
If a cell is hypertonic, it means that it is...
Above concentration compared to the rest of the environment.
Plasmolysis is what?
When a plasma membrane become shrivelled within a cell wall.
Facilitated Diffusion is...
Driven by a diffusion gradient and involves membrane proteins
What proteins does facilitated diffusion involve?
Channel protein (spans the membrane) and Carrier protein (sugars, amino acids, and other large molecules.)
Active transport moves from ____ concentration to ______ concentration.
Low concnetration to high concentration.
Active transport ______ require the input of energy.
A. Does
B. Does Not
A. Does
What are the three types of primary structure active transport?
Uniport, symport, and antiport
What is uniport?
One molecule is pumped in one direction
What is symport?
Two molecules move in the same direction, one molecule is an amino acide and one is a sodium molecule, and the amino acid always moves againt the concentration gradient.
What is antiport?
Two molecules move in opposite directions, and both move against the concentration gradient.
All primary structure of active transport relies on what to do the work?
IMPs! (Integral Membrane Proteins)
In the secondary structure of active transport, what is used to establish a concentration gradient?
What is endocytosis?
The import of something via membrane vesicle
What is exocytosis?
Export of something via a membrane vesicle
In endocytosis, the plasma membrane is removed to form a what?
A vesicle
After endocytotis, the membrane that was taken to form a vesicle must be replaced. When is it replaced?
During exocytosis
When exocytosis adds plasma membrane, it creates what?
A need for plasma membrane to be removed
When plasma membrane is added through exocytosis, what removes it?
Endocytosis occurs in...
A. Prokaryotes
B. Eukaryotes
C. Both
C. Both
Endocytosis occurs in cells..
A. With cell walls
B. Without cell walls
C. Both
C. Both
If a cell is taking in a solid during endocytosis, it's not called endocytosis anymore. What is it?
If a cell is taking in a liquid during endocytosis, it's not called endocytosis anymore. What is it?
What transports material between plant cells by connecting cytoplasm of two adjoining cells?
What anchors flagella and organizes microtubules in animal cells; and is also known as centriole?
Basal Body
What organelle does photosynthesis?
What controls what enters and leaves the vacuole?
What provides structural rigidity to plant cells only?
Cell wall
What produces ribosomes?
What provides digestion in animal cells?
What modifies and packages proteins in PLANT cells?
What does cellular respiration?
What provides intra-cellular movement and cell shape?
T or F: Cell size is limited by surface area-to-volume ratio.
T or F: All living cells have a plasma membrane.
T or F: The word “cell” comes from the rooms or cells that monks occupy.
T or F: The opposite of sexual cell division is somatic cell division.
T or F: Life can arise “de novo” at any time.
T or F: “Pro” means before.
T or F: Prokaryotes lack ribosomes.
T or F: Some prokaryotes are green and can photosynthesize.
T or F: An autotroph is an organism that can photosynthesize.
T or F: The site of photosynthesis is on the thylakoids.
Which of the following is NOT a function of proteins?
A. Catalysts
B. Stabilize DNA
C. Cytoskeleton
D. signals, receptors, toxins
E. all ARE functions of proteins
E. all ARE functions of proteins
What type of bond holds amino acids together in a protein?
A. Ester bond
B. Hydrogen bonds
C. Peptide bond
D. Glycosidic bond
E. Phosphodiester bond
C. Peptide Bond
Predict how many different proteins are possible that are 300 amino acids long.
A. 300 to the 20
B. 300 x 20
C. 20 to the 20
D. 20 to the 300
E. not enough data to tell
D. 20 to the 300
What is the secondary structure of a protein?
A.How it folds into a helix or b pleated sheet
B. The order of amino acids
C. How it can be denatured
D. how it forms a glob
E. how peptides join to form protein
A. How it folds into a helix or b pleated sheet
3.Which of the following is NOT a lipid?
A. Butter
B. Crisco
C. Motor Oil
D. Cell membrane
E. Cellulose
E. Cellulose
3.What type of reaction forms an ester bond?
A. Hydrolysis
B. Exothermic
C. Steriometric
D. Condensation
E. Catabolic
D. Condensation
What are the TWO subunits of a triglyceride?
A. Fatty acid
B. Phosphate
C. Carbonyl
D. Glycerol
E. Steroid
A. Fatty Acid
D. Glycerol
Which molecule type has double bonds?
A. Saturated fat
B. Unsaturated fat
B. Unsaturated fat
3.What does it mean for a molecule to be amphipathic?
A. The opposite of pathic
B. Likes other molecules
C. Follows many paths
D. Ends of a molecule differ from each other
E. Requires energy to interact
D. Ends of a molecule differ from each other
Which carbohydrate is NOT present in plants?
A. Lectins
B. Cellulose
C. Starch
D. Sucrose
E. Glycogen
E. Glycogen
Which of the following is NOT a property of water?
a. high specific heat
b. cohesion
c. universal solvent
d. liquid water is less dense than solid water
e. adhesion
ab. it is a polar molecule
d. liquid water is less dense than solid water
T or F: Liquid water is a mixture of H2O and H+ and OH-
What is true of a solution with a pH of 16?
a. it is not possible to have a pH of 16 since the pH scale only goes to 14
b. it is a very strong acid
c. it is a very strong base
d. it is unlikely to occur in a biological system
e. two of the above (c&d)
What is the pH of a solution with a [H+] of 10M?
a. 7
b. 1
c. -1
d. 10
e. -10
ab. not enough information given to tell
c. -1
In a certain molecule, electrons are shared between two atoms. What type of bond is this?
a. Van der Waals
b. ionic
c. covalent
d. hydrogen
e. coelectronic
c. covalent
What distinguishes a condensation reaction from other types of chemical reactions? Mark all that apply.
a. a water molecule is “lost”
b. a water molecule is gained
c. a covalent bond is formed
d. a covalent bond is broken
a. a water molecule is “lost”
c. a covalent bond is formed
What are the subunits of a macromolecule?
a. polymers
d. monomers
b. covalent bonds
e. macromolecules, by definition, don’t have subunits
c. unimers
d. monomers
Which is the most abundant molecule in living organisms?
a. carbohydrates
b. nucleic acids
c. lipids
d. proteins
e. water
e. water
What are the building blocks of proteins?
a. fatty acids
b. nucleotides
c. water
d. amino acids
e. simple sugars
d. amino acids
Which of the following is NOT soluble in water?
a. lipids
b. proteins
c. carbohydrates
d. HCl
e. NaCl
a. lipids
1.The hydrogen bond between two water molecules arises because water is
a. Polar
b. Nonpolar
c. A liquid
d. Adhesive
e. Small
a. Polar
The role of buffers is to
a. Soften collision of molecules
b. Minimize pH changes
c. Donate protons
d. speed up chemical reactions
e. form ionic bonds
b. Minimize pH changes
An element is
a.Several kinds of atoms bonded together
b.Two of the same type of atom bonded together
c.One type of atom
d.A sum of the isotopes in an atom
e.A molecule that can change pH
c.One type of atom
T or F: Missed quizzes can be made up as long as you present a good reason for missing it. Just ask.
T or F: Talking in class, unless asking a question or participating in a discussion, is not tolerated.
T or F: The lowest exam grade will be dropped.
T or F: Make-up exams are all multiple choice questions.
1.Which type of bond is the strongest?
a.Van der Waals forces
b.A single hydrogen bond
c.A covalent bond
d.An ionic bond
c. A covalent bond
1.How would you describe Qr+++?
a. A divalent anion
b. A trivalent anions
c. A triplet cation
d. A trivalent cation
e. A divalent cation
d. a trivalent cation
1.Which type of bond is formed when one atom loses an electron and the other atom gains an electron and the two then hook up?
a.Van der Waals forces
b.A single hydrogen bond
c.A covalent bond
d.An ionic bond
d. An ionic bond

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