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The genus Chara
A. is an example of an alga which has anisogamy.
B. grows attached to rocks in the intertidal zone of oceans.
C. has a zygotic life cycle.
D. has dichotomous branching.
C. has a zygotic life cycle.
Which of the following terms apply to the genus Laminaria?
A. rockweed
B. heteromorphic
C. chrysolaminarin
D. heterocyst
B. heteromorphic
The endomembrane system Not covered this semester
A. refers to the chloroplasts and mitochondria collectively.
B. is found exclusively in prokaryotic cells.
C. refers to the membranes inside chloroplasts.
D. allows the movement of sec
D. allows the movement of sections of membrane from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi bodies to the plasma membrane.
Secondary cell walls
A. are found in all plant cells.
B. are formed by the fusion of Golgi vesicles during cytokinesis.
C. may consist of three layers, each with cellulose microfibrils arranged parallel to each other.
D. are located b
C. may consist of three layers, each with cellulose microfibrils arranged parallel to each other.
A new taxonomic category, the Domain, has been recently introduced. The reason for its introduction is that
A. information obtain from molecular biological research has shown that there are great biochemical differences between organisms now grouped
A. information obtain from molecular biological research has shown that there are great biochemical differences between organisms now grouped in each Domain and those grouped in other Domains.
Which of the following is not a way in which cyanobacteria are ecologically significant?
A. They are photosynthetic and contribute to the production of atmospheric oxygen.
B. Algal blooms of cyanobacteria release toxins and deplete oxygen, th
C. They contribute to the stabilization of coral reefs.
Mitochondria Not covered this semester
A. contain DNA and ribosomes.
B. are also known as microbodies.
C. are the site of anaerobic respiration.
D. have internal membranes called cisternae.
A. contain DNA and ribosomes.
Which of the following is not an economic use of the Division/Phylum Rhodophyta?
A. used in growth medium for growing microorganisms like bacteria
B. used as fertilizer
C. used as an emulsifier in ice cream
D. used for electropho
B. used as fertilizer
Facilitated diffusion Not covered this semester
A. involves a transport protein.
B. involves the expenditure of ATP.
C. refers to the movement of water molecules through membranes.
D. can move materials against concentration gradi
A. involves a transport protein.
. The genus Ulva
A. has a whorl of branches at each node.
B. produces motile spores.
C. has a zygotic life cycle.
D. produces multicellular gametangia.
B. produces motile spores.
One economic use of diatoms is as
A. an emulsifier in chocolate milk.
B. an additive to the paint for highway stripes.
C. a scrubbing agent in cosmetics.
D. a source of mineral salts for mineral supplement tablets.
B. an additive to the paint for highway stripes.
As recently as 25 years ago, the cyanobacteria were classified as algae. Why was this the case?
A. Like algae, the cyanobacteria are eubacteria.
B. Like algae, the cyanobacteria have complex life cycles.
C. Like algae, the cyanobacteria
. Like algae, the cyanobacteria are both aquatic and photosynthetic.
Which of the following is not a function of microtubules? Not covered this semester
A. They form spindle fibers.
B. They form the phragmoplast.
C. They are the main structural component of cell walls.
D. They are part of the cytos
C. They are the main structural component of cell walls.
. The diatoms are similar to all members of the Division/Phylum Phaeophyta in that
A. they have the same storage material.
B. they have the same type of cell wall.
C. they have the same type of life cycle.
D. they have the same ty
D. they have the same type of pigments.
. The middle lamella
A. is located between the secondary cell wall and the plasma membrane.
B. is composed primarily of materials synthesized by the plasma membrane.
C. is found primarily in water conducting and support cells.
D. is composed primarily of pectic substances.
Which of the following is not a found in prokaryotic cells?
A. cellulose cell walls
B. plasma membrane
C. ribosomes
D. thylakoids
A. cellulose cell walls
The genus Chlamydomonas
A. has an isomorphic alternation of generations.
B. has a life cycle which includes only one 2N cell.
C. is a unicellular form consisting of two semi-cells.
D. stores food as floridean starch.
B. has a life cycle which includes only one 2N cell.
Alginic acid (algin)
A. is found in the cell walls of members of the Division/Phylum Rhodophyta.
B. is a toxic material released in algal blooms.
C. is the reason people harvest Chondrus crispus (Irish moss).
D. is ingested by pe
D. is ingested by people who each kelps as vegetables.
19. Members of the Division/Phylum Rhodophyta
A. are sometimes called stoneworts.
B. are the most common seaweed found in waters off the California coast.
C. are generally smaller in size than members of the Division/Phylum Phaeophyta.<
20. Most eukaryotic cells have a nucleus. A nucleus Not covered this semester
A. has a single membrane surrounding it.
B. contains a single molecule of DNA.
C. contains some of the information for the structure and functioning of chlor
. Which of the following is not true of primary pit fields?
A. The primary pit field is a feature of the secondary cell wall.
B. The primary pit field is where plasmodesmata are located.
C. The secondary cell wall is not deposited over
An example of a member of the Division/Phylum Chlorophyta which has oogamy is
A. Spirogyra
B. Chlamydomonas
C. Ulva
D. Volvox
The genus Fucus
A. is found in both fresh water and marine environments.
B. has multicellular gametangia.
C. has gametic life cycle.
D. is a coralline alga.
Both pennate and centric diatoms
A. look the same in girdle view.
B. are motile.
C. exhibit isogamy.
D. have a raphe.
Which of the following is not a function of the plasma membrane? Not covered this semester
A. It plays a role in the synthesis of cellulose microfibrils.
B. It provides structural support for the cell.
C. It controls the movement of mat
Define: cladistics
Cladistics is a system of classification which places organisms into groups called clades which consisted of closely related organisms.
Cladistics is a system of classification which attempts to determine the “relatedness” or phylogenetic relationships of organisms.
Define: smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is part of the endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is the site of lipid synthesis.
Define: daughter colony
A daughter colony is a three-dimensional cluster of cells formed by mitotic divisions in asexual reproduction.
Volvox is an example of a genus which forms daughter colonies in asexual reproduction
Define: endosymbiosis
Endosymbiosis refers to a mutualistic relationship between two organisms in which one organism exists inside of another.
Endosymbiosis is a close association of two organisms in which both organisms benefit
multicellular adult (1N)
mitosis mitosis

spore(1N cells) gamete (1N)

meiosis fertilization

zygote (2N)

What type of life cycle is diagrammed above?
The life cycle is a zygotic life cycle
How do you know that this is the type of life cycle you named in #1?
In a zygotic life cycle, there is only one 2N cell, the zygote, and meiosis of the zygote occurs to form spores.
Name one alga that has this type of life cycle?
Most of the freshwater green algae (Div. Chlorophyta) have a zygotic life cycle: Chlamydomonas, Volvox, Hydrodictyon, Spirogyra, desmids, Chara.
What is the term botanists use for a multicellular 1N adult?
The 1N adult is called the gametophyte.
If the spores produce by an alga are motile, what is the term for this
Motile spores are called zoospores
In what way or ways are the cyanobacteria similar to members of the Division/Phylum Rhodophyta? How are they different?
The cyanobacteria and the members of the Division Rhodophyta are similar in the pigments that are used for photosynthesis. These pigments are chlorophyll a and the phycobilins, phycocyanin and phycoerythrin. The cyanobacteria and the Rhodophyta differ in several ways. The cyanobacteria are prokaryotic and the Rhodophyta are eukaryotic. The cyanobacteria are found in freshwater (as well as in marine waters), and the Rhodophyta are primarily marine. The Rhodophyta is used economically in several ways including as a food crop; the cyanobacteria are not used economically. The cyanobacteria fix nitrogen; the Rhodophyta do not.
a potato (starchy vegetable that grows underground) is left out on a window sill, it turns green. How do you account for this? What changes occur at the organelle level?
A potato left on a window sill turns green because the starch-storing amyloplasts (leucoplasts) in the potato have developed into chloroplasts in the presence of light. Both chloroplasts and amyloplasts are plastids. These are related organelles that are interconvertible. An amyloplast has large starch grains and few membranes. In light, the starch grains disappear and a membrane system called the thylakoids develop. At the same time, photosynthetic pigments which are bound to the membrane system are synthesized.
Compare desmids and diatoms in terms of ecological significance, environment(s) in which they are found, and pigments they contain.
Desmids are found in freshwater, and diatoms are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Desmids and diatoms are both part of the phytoplankton which consists of photosynthetic, microscopic, floating organism. Phytoplankton carries on most of the photosynthesis in the biosphere which contributes most of the oxygen to the atmosphere. The phytoplankton also forms the base of aquatic food chains. Desmids have the pigments chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids. Diatoms have the pigments chlorophyll a and c and carotenoids, especially fucoxanthin.
Describe three functions of plant cell vacuoles.
Plant cell vacuoles store sugars and organic acids. They also store waste materials, usually in the form of crystals, and metabolic by-products such as tannin and nicotine. Vacuoles play a role in the water balance of cells and help maintain turgor pressure. Vacuoles contain the same enzymes found in lysosomes of animal cells and are believed to play a role in biochemical recycling.
. Heterocysts
A. are found only in the cyanobacteria and the Division Rhodophyta.
B. are cells which can survive harsh environmental conditions.
C. convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrate.
D. are zygotes which are surrounded by
Generally, members of the Division Rhodophyta
A. are found in freshwater.
B. are part of the phytoplankton.
C. are found in warm, tropical waters.
D. are known as rockweeds or kelps.
Most algae in the Division Chlorophyta
A. have a zygotic life cycle.
B. have a laminar or thalloid morphology.
C. do not undergo sexual reproduction.
D. are unicellular and consist of two equal halves which are mirror images of on
Plant cell vacuoles
A. may occupy up to 90% of the cell volume of a meristematic cell.
B. are surrounded by a membrane called the phragmoplast.
C. contain enzymes which breakdown and recycle plant cell walls.
D. play a role in ma
The Kingdom Protista
A. consists of eukaryotic organisms.
B. was recently divided into two kingdoms: Eubacteria and Archaebacteria.
C. includes mushrooms and toadstools.
D. includes only autotrophic organisms.
The plasma membrane
A. is found only in eukaryotic cells.
B. consists primarily of lipid and polysaccharides.
C. is believed to play a role in synthesis an assembly of cell wall cellulose microfibrils.
D. is impermeable.
The Kingdom Eubacteria differs from the Kingdom Archaebacteria in that
A. members of the Eubacteria have eukaryotic cells and members of the Archaebacteria have prokaryotic cells.
B. the biochemistry of the two kingdoms is distinctly differen
A way in which members of the Division Phaeophyta are used by people is
A. in the preparation of sushi.
B. as a vegetable.
C. as a scrubbing agent in toothpaste.
D. as an additive to rice paddies to supply nitrogen
Besides chlorophyll a, the type of pigment found in the cyanobacteria is
A. anthocyanin
B. phycobilin
C. fucoxanthin
D. carotene
As a cell of the root meristem develops into a cell within a potato,
A. protoplasts develop an extensive internal membrane system called thylakoids.
B. proplastids develop a few internal membranes and many large starch grains.
C. protopl
. Which of the following structures is not formed during asexual reproduction by at least one member of the Division Chlorophyta?
A. fragments (by fragmentation)
B. zoospores
C. zygospores (Term not used this semester)
D. daughter
None of the eukaryotic algae
A. is heteromorphic.
B. has nodes and internodes.
C. has cells that lack nuclei.
D. is cultivated as a crop.
The cell wall of algae within the Division Phaeophyta is distinctive (different from that of other algae) because it
A. contains cellulose.
B. is made of glass (silicon dioxide).
C. is made of peptidoglycans.
D. contains algin or
One way in which Chara is different from other members of the Division Chlorophyta is that Chara is the only member of the Chlorophyta that has
A. unicellular gametangia.
B. cells specialized for conducting food.
C. a laminar body diffe
Ribosomes not covered this semester
A. are found only in eukaryotic cells.
B. are the site of polysaccharide synthesis.
C. may be attached to the cisternae of dictyosomes.
D. may be clustered into groups called polysomes.
Which of the following statements is not true of chromoplasts?
A. Chromoplasts are surrounded by a double membrane.
B. Chromoplasts may be found in roots.
C. Chromoplasts may develop from chloroplasts.
D. Chromoplasts contain gran
The significance of the fact that some members of the Division Chlorophyta have cellulose cell walls is that
A. this allows the use of the Chlorophyta as cattle food.
B. this accounts for the complex parenchymatous structure of some members o
The Division Rhodophyta is similar to the cyanobacteria in their type of
A. cell wall material.
B. life cycle.
C. cell division.
D. pigments.
The genus Fucus has
A. a sporic life cycle.
B. whorls of branches.
C. sporangia which are protected by paraphyses.
D. oogamy.
Which of the following is not true of plant cell walls?
A. They account for many of the economic uses of plants.
B. They play a role in recognizing foreign cells (such as bacteria).
C. The main structural component is called a microfila
The genus Oedogonium
A. has anisogamy.
B. forms conjugation tubes.
C. produces holdfasts.
D. produces akinetes.
Which of the following is not a way in which materials move into cells? Not covered this semester.
A. endocytosis
B. facilitated diffusion
C. exocytosis
D. active transport
Prokaryotic cells lack
A. endoplasmic reticulum.
B. cell walls.
C. ribosomes.
The endomembrane system does not include not covered this semester
A. the nuclear envelope.
B. microbodies.
C. vesicles.
D. plastids.
Plant cell vacuoles never store
A. mineral crystals.
B. secondary products such as nicotine.
C. organic acids such as citric acid.
D. starch.
Define: oogamy
Oogamy describes a gamete morphology in which there is a large, non-motile egg and smaller, motile sperm.
Oedogonium exhibits oogamy.
Define: heirarchy of classification
A hierarchy of classification is used to group organisms into smaller and smaller categories.
Linnaeus popularized the hierarchy of classification we use today
Define: microtubules
Microtubules are composed of protein subunits.
Microtubules form spindle fibers and the phragmoplast.
Define: centric diatom
A centric diatom is radially symmetrical.
A centric diatom is non-motile.
multicellular adult (1N)

mitosis mitosis

spore (1N) gamete (1N)

meiosis fertilization

cell of adult(2N) zygote(2N)


multicellular adult (2N)

What type of life cyc
This is a sporatic life cycle. There are two multicellular adults or generations, one haploid and one diploid.
two examples of algae that have this type of life cycle.
Two examples of algae that have a sporic life cycle are Ulva and Laminaria.
How do the life cycles of the two algae you listed in #2 differ from one another?
Ulva has isomorphic generations, and Laminaria has heteromorphic generations.
What is the term used for the 1N multicellular adult?
What is the term used for the 2N multicellular adult?
The haploid adult is the gametophyte.
? The diploid adult is the sporophyte.
The steps of what general process that occurs in eukaryotes is traced in life cycles?
What two steps are always a part of this process?
Sexual reproduction is traced in lifecycles
Two parts always present in life cycles are meiosis and fertilization.
Compare the Division Phaeophyta with the Division Chlorophyta with regard to 1) where algae in each division are most commonly found, 2) the types of pigments which are characteristic of each division, 3) the type of molecule which is the storage product
Algae of the Phylum Phaeophyta are most commonly found in the ocean while algae of the Phylum Chlorophyta are most commonly found in freshwater. The members of the Phaeophyta have chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and carotenoids, especially fucoxanthin. Members of the Chlorophyta have chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids. The members of the Chlorophyta store food as starch while the Phaeophyta stores food as laminarin or mannitol.
There are three parts to this question on plant cell walls: 1) Distinguish between primary and secondary plant cell walls in terms of a) where they are located in the cell with respect to one another and b) their components. 2) Distinguish between a pit
Primary cell walls are located to the exterior, and secondary cell walls are deposited between the primary cell wall and the plasma membrane. Primary cell walls are composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectic substances, and glycoproteins. Secondary cell walls are composed of cellulose, some hemicellulose, and lignin. A pit is a feature of the secondary cell wall. Pits are areas where the secondary cell wall is not deposited usually they occur where primary pit fields are located in the primary cell wall. Primary pit fields are features of the primary cell wall and are thin areas in that structure. The middle lamella consists primarily of pectic substances and is located between two primary cell walls. It cements adjacent cells together.
The diatoms (Division Chrysophyta) and the Division Rhodophyta are important both economically and ecologically. Describe two ways in which people make use of both the diatoms and members of the Division Rhodophyta (i.e. list two ways for diatoms and two
People use diatoms as diatomaceous earth in swimming pool filters and in the paint for highway stripes. Diatoms are a large part of the phytoplankton, which accounts for much of the world’s photosynthesis. Members of the Rhodophyta are cultivated and harvested as a crop. These algae are used in foods. Agar from the cell wall of members of the Rhodophyta is used to grow laboratory cultures. Coralline members of the Rhodophyta form a large component of coral reefs.
Chloroplasts and mitochondria are both organelles. In which type or types of organisms are chloroplasts found? What about mitochondria? Why can it be said that both organelles are “semi-autonomous”? Discuss one theory which explains how these organel
Chloroplasts are found in all photosynthetic, eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria are found in all eukaryotic cells. Both chloroplasts and mitochondria contain DNA, RNA and ribosomes and can synthesize some of their own proteins. Because this protein synthesis is not dependent on nuclear DNA, these organelles are semi-autonomous. These organelles may have originated when a large prokaryotic cell ingested autotrophic prokaryotes and aerobic prokaryotes by endocytosis. Rather than digesting the organelles, the larger cell maintained these smaller prokaryotes within its cytoplasm. Because both the large cell and the ingested cells benefited, this arrangement is called endosymbiosis. NOTE: MITOCHONDRIA WERE NOT COVERED THIS SEMESTER.

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