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Biology 4


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Darwins idea on populations outstripping resources was influenced by this guys:
THomas MAlthus
WHat are Darwins 5 basic ideas...
-offspring look like their parents -populations outstrip resources -variation in nature -natural selection -time
Darwin rejected these ideas:
Lamarcks aquired characteristics and spontaneous generation
charles darwin was born in the same year as this famous person...
ABe lincoln
what did Lamarck believe about evolution?
that organisms evolve steadily towards more perfection
what was the origin of new life theory that lamarck believed in?
spontaneous generation
what does Lamarcks concept of use and disuse imply?
that an organism will only use the parts it needs and those parts will develop more
What did Lamarck propose?
he proposed how organisms might adapt to their environments
who is credited with giving us the first evolutionary mechanism?
this guy took fossils into account to explain that he thought organisms arose from the seas
who was behind the theory that species evolve gradually, known as gradualism?
who first challenged the view that fossils might be dead organisms?
Robert Hooke
what did creationists think of fossils in the middle ages?
victims that didnt make it onto the arc in time
these birds originated in the oriental realm
how many families of birds are endemic to australia?
who assumed fossils were of organic origin?
who studied fossils in sicily?
FOssils heavily impacted the prevailing notion of...
fixity of species
which odd mammals originated in the neotropics?
sloths, anteaters, armadillos
where did possums originate from?
which plants originated in the neotropics?
potatoes, tomatoes, avacado, bananas, mangos, maize,
how many bird families are endemic to ethiopia?
what percentage of all mammal species in madagascar are endemic?
how many bird families are endemic to the oriental realm?
what are some examples of animals that originated in the paleartic and spread to the neartic during the ice age?
grizzly bears,red deer, elk, reindeer, bison
which realm has the most species of all?
how many bird families are endemic to the neotropic?
where did mouse like hamsters originate?, north africa
Where did camels cheetahs and horses originate?
the neartic...north america
WHich desert, hot or cold, has more diverse wildlife?
what plants are common in hot deserts?
succulent plants that store large quantities of water
which biome has the richest bee community on earth?
hot desert
where are tropical evergreen forests found?
equatorial realms that get lots of rain
which biome is the richest in plant and animal species?
tropical evergreen forests
what is it called when a species is found in only one specific geographic area?
where did wolves, foxes, and other canines originate?
the neartic..north america
where are temperate deciduous forest biomes found?
western europe, east asia, east north america
what are 4 characteristics of temperate deciduous forests?
the trees lose their leaves during the winter, many tree species are present, temperatures fluctuate dramatically from season to season, evenly distributed rain
which biome has the richest amphibian communities on earth?
temperate deciduous
What two areas is the hot desert biome found?
30 degrees north and 30 degrees south latitudes
what are the driest hot desert biomes?
the sahara and central australia
What are the two major ways to look at the distribution of organisms?
biomes and biogeographic realms
What are biomes based on
distinctive vegetation
what are biogeographic realms also called?
What is the distribution of biomes on earth influenced by?
rainfall patterns and temperature
where is tundra found?
high latitudes and high mountains
what is the name of the permanently frozen soil that underlies vegetation
What do arctic tundra animals normally do?
there either dormant for most of the year or they migrate in during the summer
whats the difference between tropical tundra and regular tundra?
Tropical tundra has no permafrost
what are the dominant plants in the tundra?
perennial herbs and small shrubs
warm air holds more___ ____ than does cold air
water vapor
when warm air rises it gets ____ and more ____
colder dense
sum up the rain shadow effect
leeward slopes of mountains dry while the windwards are wet
global oceanic circulation is driven by...
wind patterns
where do global air patterns occur?
in the troposphere
what drives global climates?
solar energy
heat energy moves from...
high to low
what is the circulation pattern of air called?
hot air rises at?
What is the intertropical convergence zone?
an area of lower pressure caused by rising warm air meeting air flowing north or south from the equator...heavy rains usually fall here
How is climate different from weather?
climate is what you is what you get
What is the realized niche?
resources actually obtained
What is the fundamental niche?
resources available
what do we now call the factors that malthus said would eliminate organisms over time?
what did darwin conclude about variation among species?
that it was the result of individual adaptation by that species
what made darwin stand out amongst his peers?
his interpretation of natural variation
who gave darwin a basis on his time theories?
whats a good example of natural selection in action?
the moths in the english countryside
what two fossils helped support Darwins ideas?
toxodon and Glyphodon and hyracotherium
what was darwins missing link?
what are the 5 mechanisms of evolution
mutations,natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, nonrandom mating
what does the term gene flow imply?
movement of alleles between different populations of a species
what is genetic drift defined?
random changes in allele frequencies
When can genetic drift drastically alter a populations allele frequency
when its a small isolated population
what is a bottleneck?
a catastrophic event that wipes out large portions of a population and can result in the populations allele frequency changing drastically
which species is a good example of a bottleneck?
attwaters praire chicken
what is the name of the effect when a few pioneers colonize a new area( a way genetic drift can occur)
The founders effect
how does the founder effect decrease genetic variability?
it decreases the chance of random mating
what does sexual selection influence?
reproductive success
what was darwins explanation for lots of useless traits in males?
sexual selection
what is the loss of alleles due to inbreeding called?
inbreeding depression
what is the effective population size?
the members of a population engaged in breeding
what happens if there is a decrease in the effective population size?
evolution can be accelerated
what are the three results that natural selection can produce?
stabilizing selection,directional selection, disruptive selection
when does stabilizing selection occur?
when the average members of a population contribute to the gene pool more than the extreme ones
when does directional selection occur?
when one extreme of a population contributes more to the population
when does disruptive selection occur?
when both extremes of a population contribute equally
what is the popular textbook definition of species concept?
all the individual organisms of a natural population that generally interbreed at maturity in the wild and whose interbreeding produces fertile offspring
what is the oldest species concept?
which species concept makes the most sense?
which species concept divides species based on outward appearances?
which species concept did linnaeus use?
this concept is still in use with asexually reproducing organisms?
how can the essentialistic species concept be defined?
morphology with an underlying essence
this species concept was used most in the middle ages
this species concept depended on species not changing over time
which two philosophical concepts arose to reject essentialism?
plenitude and continuity
what does plenitude suggest?
that god would have created every organism possible
in this concept only individuals exist and cannot be grouped into taxa
This species concept emphasizes the importance of reproductive isolation.
the biological species concept stemmed from the work of these 3 guys:
John Ray, Darwin, Mayr
THat it only applies to sexually based organisms was a problem of this species theory:
what was the leading criticism of the 1942 biological species theory?
that all that was needed to support species status was to show proof that populations were breeding successfully
the criticism that the niche was redundant was directed at this species concept:
this is the most popular species concept for vertebrates
people think this concept might not point to the true unit of evolution
what is a major criticism leveled against the BSC by proponents of phylogenetic?
they argue that species designation is assigned to late in the game and that it should be assigned at the first hint of separation
this concept was proposed when people decided to look at evolutionary history in conjunction with phenotypes
phylogenetic species concept
this species concept does not place an emphasis on reproductive isolation
what am i talking about when i say "the level of distinction based upon uniqueness of a derived character
population descending from an ancestor aquires a shared, derived, character...what is this
no taxa exist below the species level in this concept
what is it called when gene pools become separated?
what is the critical process in the formation of new species?
segregation of the gene pool of the ancestor species into two new ones
what are the two main processes of speciation?
sympatric, allopatric
what does allopatric speciation require?
complete genetic isolation
sympatric speciation occurs without:
physical barriers
what is a polyploid?
more than two sets of chromosomes
where might disruptive selection be happening?
on a fruit fly
speciation is a ______ event
what are reproductive isolating mechanisms?
evolution of traits that prevenet interbreeding that keep populations from mixing their genes
prezygotic barriers operate_____ ______
before fertilization
what does habitat isolation describe?
individuals of different species may select different habitats...which means they may never come into contact
what does temporal isolation describe?
if the mating patterns of two species do not overlap they may be reproductively isolated
what does mechanical isolation describe?
incompatible genitalia
what does gametic isolation imply?
inability of sperm to fertilize egg of another species
behavioral isolation
individuals just dont wanna do it with other species
postzygotic behaviors operate_____ ____
after fertilization
what does low zygote viability describe?
a hybrid zygote fails to develop to reproductive vialbity
what does low adult viability imply?
offspring might not survive very long (mules)
what is a phylogeny?
a hypothesis that describes the history of descent of a group of organisms from their common ancestor
what is the term for a derived trait that is shared between taxas?
a synapomorphy

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